Orthodontics is the science that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of facial disorders caused by teeth or skeletal development in the lower face area.

  • Orthodontics by dentition period

one- Primary dentition period: These are the practices aimed at reducing the problems that occur due to habits such as thumb sucking, lip biting, and foreign body insertion in the pre-school years as much as possible. If these habits are eliminated during the primary dentition period, recovery is achieved without a permanent defect in the skeletal structure. For this, some intraoral or extraoral devices are used.
2- Mixed dentition period: It covers primary school age children, it is the period when both permanent and milk teeth are present in the mouth. In this period, a number of space problems may occur as a result of the loss of milk teeth before or after their time and the inability to guide the permanent teeth from below. The confusion created (of your distortion) removal is of interest to orthodontics. Again, the elimination of incompatibilities between the jaws, which start in this period and continue until the end of adolescence, is the subject of orthodontics.
3-Permanent dentition period: Defects in the teeth can be corrected with fixed or mobile devices with or without tooth extraction.

  • When to go to the orthodontist?

Children should be taken to the dentist for a check-up starting from the age of 2, when the milk teeth come out and have the chewing function.
The dentist evaluates the child’s jaw-facial development and the health of the teeth, as well as their position. Anticipating possible problems and taking precautions are indispensable for preventive medicine.
Skeletal problems in children should be intervened at an early age.
The spaces between milk teeth are an indicator of natural development. Tight contacts as in the teeth of adults, future shortness of space and therefore crowding in the teeth. (of your distortion)could be an indicator.
Permanent teeth begin to erupt at the age of 6-7, but between the ages of 8-12, there are not many problems until the deciduous molars change. However, all milk teeth should be kept in place until they are replaced by permanent ones.
Therefore, caries in milk teeth should be treated early.
If a milk tooth needs to be extracted, making prostheses that will take the place of the extracted one will prevent the need for orthodontic treatment in the future.

  • Causes of orthodontic problems

one.Nutritional Disorders: In people who cannot be fed adequately, volumetric shrinkage may occur in the jaw and facial structure, and crowding and rotations may occur because the teeth of normal volume cannot find the necessary place in small jaws. (rotation), even burial cases can be seen.

2. Mouth Breathing: If chronic inflammation and similar causes in the tonsils continue for a long time, the tonsils can grow excessively. In this case, the airways narrow and breathing difficulties occur. In order to overcome this difficulty and expand the air passageway in that area, the child has to bring his lower jaw and accordingly his tongue forward. If this situation continues for a long time, the forward position of the lower jaw will settle. If the tongue enters between the front teeth and prevents the teeth from erupting, an open bite occurs. If the patient cannot breathe through the nose, there may be a negative effect on the growth potential of the upper jaw.

3. Incorrect swallowing: In some children, at the time of swallowing, the child pinches his tongue between his front teeth. This means involuntarily giving extra force to the front teeth, that is, constantly pushing the teeth. Afterwards, tooth and palate development develops undesirably. It is a situation often overlooked by families and sometimes even by physicians.

4. Thumb Sucking: A newborn baby has a highly developed sucking mechanism. A baby whose sucking instinct is not satisfied acquires some habits to satisfy this need. This habit is mostly not seen in children fed with breast milk for 9-18 months.

Studies have shown that thumb sucking develops in the first few weeks of life due to hunger. Since the pain arising from regional irritations can be relieved by thumb sucking during the eruption period, this habit can be thought to help dentition.

  • Why do children suck their thumbs?

– If the baby is suddenly weaned from the breast or bottle
– If sucking is stopped too soon while the baby is feeding
– If the baby feeds at long intervals

No precautions are taken in the early period in the habit of thumb sucking. Preventing the habit during this period is harmful as it will affect the psychology and physiology of the child.

There is no exact age for the treatment of thumb sucking habit. Setting the appropriate time is individual for each child. The degree of habituation influences the adjustment of time in the child’s past.

In general, if thumb sucking continues beyond the age of 3.5, treatment should be started.
In the child who continues this habit, displacements and skeletal closure disorders can be seen in the upper and lower teeth, which are in the impact area according to the sucked finger and its number.

5. False Pacifier: It is not harmful to suck a pacifier with physiological characteristics until the age of 1.5 years. It is even beneficial in terms of preventing the child from acquiring a bad habit such as thumb sucking. When false pacifiers are used continuously, they may cause irregularity and various closing disorders in those areas, as they will have a long-term effect on the tissues within their impact area.

6. Lying Style: The lying position usually determines the position of the lower jaw while lying down. This gives us an indication of the position of the lower jaw for an average of 8 hours a day. For example, the position of the lower jaw is different between a child lying on his back and a child lying on his back. In addition, the child’s sleeping by placing his hand under the chin while lying down may cause joint shifts in the jaw.

7. Bad habits: Clenching teeth, biting nails, biting pencils, biting lips, etc.

8. Gingival problems: Since infections of the tissues around the teeth and bone loss reduce the support of the tooth, the teeth may come to undesirable positions.

9 . Early loss of milk teeth: If the milk teeth that serve as a guide for permanent teeth are lost early, the ones that will replace them may be buried or may erupt from different places.

10. Wisdom teeth: There may be irregularities due to compression of the front teeth.

11. Permanent tooth loss: Neighboring teeth that slide into the missing tooth cavity may cause irregularities.

12.Hormonal irregularities, systemic diseases: It may pave the way for irregularities by impairing the health of teeth and surrounding tissues.

13. Genetic predisposition: If other family members have orthodontic problems
The probability of having it in the child increases.

  • Classification of maxillofacial disorders

Skeletal disorders:

Treatments for problems arising from skeletal disorders should be performed before bone development is completed in children.
Orthodontics also has to get help from surgical methods for treatment in adult individuals with complete bone development. (Orthognathic Treatment)

Dental disorders:

For problems arising from the position of the teeth, treatments can be performed at any age, regardless of the child/adult.
The main thing in the treatment is to move the teeth in the bone until the desired ideal position is reached. Therefore, in this treatment, the duration of treatment in pediatric patients may be shorter than in adults.

Orthodontic treatment methods

Mobile treatment method

  • The Invisalign plating method is generally used in cases where there is less crowding or tooth spacing. It consists of completely transparent plaques that are attached to the teeth in the form of a sheath, which are not visible from the outside when worn.
  • Functional therapy is the treatment performed by activating the muscles and some skeletal structures. These treatments are used to widen the jaw in cases where the jaw is anterior or posterior, or if there is narrowness in the jaws.
  • Extraoral appliances are appliances that the patient himself puts on and removes. These are some masks, appliances called headgears that come from the back of the neck to the chin and allow the growth and development of the lower and upper jaw to follow in a controlled and desired manner. These appliances are generally used in children or adolescents.


Fixed treatment method
– Brackets attached to the surface of the teeth are used. They are brackets, some of which are made of metal, some made of tooth-colored porcelain, and some are transparent, which are invisible from afar, in other words, they look more aesthetically pleasing.
– It is also possible to treat with brackets (lingual brackets) attached to the invisible inner sides of the teeth.
With brackets, treatments are performed with larger defects, where the teeth are rotated, and where the gaps are much greater.

Frequently asked questions in orthodontics

  • Can orthodontic treatment also be applied to adults (wire treatment)??

Yes. Developing technology makes orthodontic treatment possible in adulthood, which could not be done as a child; his smile with his own straight teeth makes people happier. In fact, dental treatments can be performed at almost any age; as long as the teeth and surrounding tissues (periodonsium) are healthy. However, problems related to the jawbones can only be corrected by surgery in advanced ages.

  • What does chin orthopedics mean?

It is a field of orthodontics that aims to correct the deteriorated relations of the jaws with respect to the face or each other with special tools. For example, forward positioning of the lower jaw (prognathism), lower jaw back or upper forward thrust at young ages “orthopedic treatment”can be corrected with
Only if the teeth are straightened “orthodontic treatment” is obtained with; but most of the time, orthopedic treatment and orthodontic treatment are carried out together.

  • What is orthognathic surgery?

Proper alignment of teeth can be achieved with orthodontic or orthopedic treatment. Relationships between the jaws can also be corrected to a certain extent. But in some cases, orthodontic treatment is insufficient. In such cases, a maxillofacial surgeon and orthodontist can work together to correct a severe case with a surgical method. The aesthetic result obtained in a very short time is successful and nowadays orthognathic surgical treatment is becoming more and more common.

  • How do the teeth move during orthodontic treatment (braces treatment)?

If a force is applied on the tooth with spring, wire or special tires, a movement occurs in the direction of the force. Bone tissue is destroyed temporarily in front of the moving tooth, and new bone tissue is made in the opposite direction of the movement. Thus, the teeth that take their new places sit in a new bone socket.

  • What is reinforcement therapy?

Orthodontic treatment takes about 2 years. Immediately after the teeth were straightened, the surrounding structures (periodonsium) could not adapt to the new position of the teeth. In addition, bone tissue is immature. For this reason, if the appliances are removed, the teeth can return to their former places. To prevent this, it is necessary to reinforce the straightened teeth with other devices to be made. This final stage of treatment is called reinforcement therapy. During this period, it is essential for children to take care of their teeth.

  • Is it possible for orthodontics to be less noticeable from the outside?

Today, it is possible to get rid of the wire appearance, which is the most feared feature of orthodontic treatment, with less noticeable materials. Appliances attached to the upper surfaces of the teeth can be metal-colored, white, transparent or tooth-colored. In some cases, they can even be applied to the invisible back of the tooth.

  • Things to consider before and after orthodontic treatment

1- Before starting orthodontic treatment, decayed teeth should be treated and the gums should be brought to a healthy state.
2- Regular brushing of the appliance and teeth is essential. Especially in fixed devices, dental plaque settles very quickly around the grooves adhered to the teeth. This should not be allowed.
3- After starting the treatment, the physician sees the patient on average once a month. Therefore, a major task in orthodontic treatment falls on children. For this reason, there should be a desire for treatment in children whose teeth are to be corrected. Family coercion often has a negative impact.
4- The recommendations of the physician during the controls should be followed carefully.
5- Appointments should not be delayed.
6- If there is breakage, rupture or protrusion of the devices that adhere to the mouth, the treatment is interrupted. In such cases, a doctor should be consulted immediately.
7- Boredom should not be shown in reinforcement therapy; The applied device should be placed in the mouth regularly.

  • Benefits of orthodontics

– Closing dental cavities
– Jaw (Teeth, Palate)fix closing defects
– Correcting the positions and postures of the teeth
– Aligning teeth and lips properly.
– Orthodontic treatment has a very important place in aesthetic dentistry.
– With orthodontic treatment, while the teeth are properly placed on the jawbone, joint, head and neck pain caused by jaw closing disorders can also be relieved.
– Orthodontic treatment also plays an active role in eliminating stomach problems and digestive system problems by giving the person a full chewing function.
– Orthodontic treatment allows you to take better care of your teeth while aligning your teeth more properly, thus reducing the risk of caries in your teeth.
– Orthodontic treatment to make the teeth look aesthetic and to gain chewing function is more expensive than alternative prosthetic treatments, but it provides an invaluable gain in terms of protecting / using the teeth and surrounding tissues in their natural state.
– Prices and processes in orthodontic treatment vary according to the severity of the case. In addition, the price and process may vary according to the types of appliances to be used.

In a study, it was calculated that the hairdresser cost of Turkish women in the same period was more than the same length of orthodontic treatment.
Thanks to orthodontics, you can smile better with your own teeth at any age.

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