Benign and malignant tumors are found in this region. The lips, anterior tongue (2/3 anterior), floor of the mouth, buccal mucosa, gingival mucosa, retromolar trigone, hard palate are examined in sections.
Smoking and alcohol chewing habits, poor oral hygiene cause malignant tumor formation. Although the symptoms vary according to the affected area, they usually come with wounds in the mouth, wobble in the teeth, trismus, difficulty in swallowing, bleeding and weight loss. Pathologies with ulceration, invasion, pain, bleeding and fragile appearance in the mucosa should be evaluated as malignant and biopsy should be performed.
Before the tumor develops, it may also encounter lesions that lead to the tumor. These are erythroplakia and leukoplakia. Definitive diagnosis is made by biopsy.
Our treatment protocol is surgical excision or accompanying neck dissection, followed by radiotherapy if necessary. The earlier the tumor is detected, the better the treatment and prognosis.
a) Lip Cancers:All lip cancers 88-98%i on the lower lip, 2-7%on the upper lip, %2 ‘s occur in the commissure area. Lip cancers 90% They recover with surgery. Lymph node metastasis is seen in the neck region in 10% of the patients. It responds well to surgical treatment.
b) Language Tumors: The anterior 2/3 of the tongue is in the mouth. It metastasizes to the neck lymphs. It can be treated with surgical excision and neck dissection. Early diagnosis is important.
c) Oral Floor Tumors:Surgical treatment is equally effective.
Lymph node metastases often metastasize. Neck dissection is also added to surgical excision.
c) Buccal Mucosa:(oral mucosa, cheek)Surgical treatment is equally effective.
D) Gingiva, triangular retromata, hard palate: Most of the tumors in this region require surgical resection because of the presence of bone invasion. In early lesions without bone invasion, 80% of the cases are healed in the local area with radiotherapy together with surgery.
OROPHARYNX CANCERS (THROAT)
Oropharynx includes tongue root, tonsil, soft palate
Tongue Root: These are tumors that are more difficult to treat than the free tongue region. Since the tongue root is important in swallowing, it causes loss of function. After resection, the space is filled with pedicle flaps that are turned from the chest area. Often, both sides can metastasize to the lymph nodes.
Radiotherapy may be considered in the tonsil and soft palate areas.
HYPOPHARYNX CANCERS (PHOSPHORY)
This area is at the entrance of the esophagus at the back of the larynx. It is mostly seen with laryngeal cancer or in its advanced stage. Most of the hypopharyngeal cancers are detected in the advanced stage. Laryngectomy and sometimes a part of the esophagus are added to the surgery.
NASOPHARYNX CANCERS (GENIUS)
The nasopharynx is the area we call the nasal passage. Most of these tumors 90%are epidermoid or undifferentiated cancers. 10%This includes lymphoma.
When the tumor progresses, it extends to the oropharynx below and to the brain above. It is mostly treated with radiotherapy. The nasopharynx has a rich lymphatic network, and at the same time, they jump early to the cervical lymph nodes.