- ORAL AND DENTAL CARE DURING PREGNANCY
The deterioration of the oral and dental health of the expectant mother during pregnancy negatively affects the development of the baby.
Expectant mothers who plan to become pregnant and become pregnant should definitely go through a dental check-up, learn what to do for dental and gingival health during pregnancy, and have the necessary treatments done.
This is very important for the health of both mother and baby.
- ORAL AND DENTAL CARE DURING PREGNANCY
During pregnancy, when the body undergoes many physiological and psychological changes; As a result of hormonal effects, oral and dental health is adversely affected if good care is not provided. Nausea and vomiting increase acid secretion in the mouth and continue to wear on the surface of the teeth, causing cavities as a result of the softening of the hard tissues of the tooth with acids secreted by bacteria.
The mother’s habit of consuming sugary foods at frequent intervals and not brushing her teeth due to bleeding gums cause disruption of oral care and subsequently an increase in the risk of gum infection and caries.
Treatments that can be done during pregnancy differ in each trimester. These;
First trimester: In the first trimester of pregnancy, the baby’s organs are in the development phase. A bacteremia caused at this stage can negatively affect the baby’s organ development, and unnecessary interventions can cause abortion. However, in cases where the teeth that cause pain and/or can cause more damage if not intervened, urgently need to be treated such as extraction, root canal treatment, you should go to the dentist without hesitation. In emergency situations such as tooth or gum infection, it should be considered that the existing infection may affect the development of the baby more than the negative effects of dental treatment. The dentist will apply a treatment that does not harm the baby, in line with the recommendations of the obstetrician.
Second trimester: In the first trimester of pregnancy, adequate tooth brushing and oral care cannot be performed due to nausea and vomiting. This situation adversely affects the health of teeth and gums. In order to reduce these negative effects in the second trimester and to protect the health of teeth and gums in the continuation of pregnancy, a simple tartar cleaning should be done. In addition, tooth extraction, fillings, root canal treatments, etc., which are not suitable to be postponed until the end of pregnancy during this period. This is the most suitable period for many treatments.
Third trimester: In this period, the baby has grown considerably in the mother’s womb and the birth is approaching. The mother cannot sit comfortably in the chair and excessive stress can cause premature birth. Just like in the first trimester, the dentist will not intervene, except for emergency treatments.
During pregnancy, due to the deterioration of the balance in estrogen and progesterone hormones, gum disease called pregnancy gingivitis is seen in the gums. In the early stages of pregnancy, swelling and redness of the gums can be observed. This type of gum is very sensitive and bleeds easily. Pregnancy gingivitis usually begins in the 2nd month of pregnancy and peaks in the 8th month, and regresses after delivery.
Factors such as bacterial plaque or dental calculus, which occur in people who do not perform regular oral and dental care and cause gingival infection, can carry the picture of pregnancy gingivitis to more serious dimensions.
Studies have reported that untreated maternal gingivitis of pregnancy leads to low birth weight infants. As with other dental treatments, tartar cleaning should be done especially in the second trimester of pregnancy.
- Laser Treatment During Pregnancy:
Dental preparation before filling with Laser, which can be applied to all age groups and conditions, including children, pregnant women, heart patients. (bruise removal), Root canal treatment, Gum treatments, Curettage (deep gum cleaning), Removal of soft tissue lesions, Treatment of aphthae and herpes, Treatment of tooth sensitivity (closure of dentin canals), Surgical treatments (such as 20-year-old teeth, implant, mouth and jaw surgeries), Biostimulation (prevention of pain after surgery) Treatment can usually be done without the need for anesthesia. Since it provides 100% disinfection and sterilization with its strong bactericidal effect in the area where the laser is applied, it eliminates the risk of re-infection and caries formation. The laser has no known side effects. Laser application is not performed only on cancerous tissues. During laser applications, patients and employees must wear protective glasses.
- Use of local anesthetic during pregnancy:
Local anesthesia during pregnancy can be applied because it reduces stress by preventing pain during treatment. However, care should be taken in the selection of local anesthetics during pregnancy.
Local anesthetics containing octopressin may cause premature birth by causing the uterus to contract.
This type of local anesthetic should not be preferred during pregnancy.
- Dental X-ray:
X-rays are not recommended since the baby’s organ drafts develop in the first 3 months. There is no harm in taking X-rays in the following periods. In this regard, you need to take a shot with the opinion of your obstetrician. If an X-ray is absolutely necessary for an emergency treatment, a special protective lead apron should be worn on the expectant mother and a low dose application should be made.
- Medication Use in Pregnancy:
Generally, paracetamol type painkillers are used safely during pregnancy. Care should be taken in the use of painkillers and the recommendations of your obstetrician should be strictly followed. If antibiotic use is required, there is no harm in the use of penicillin derivatives (amoxicillin etc.) antibiotics for the baby. Tetracycline group antibiotics should not be used. If tetracycline is taken during pregnancy, it causes “tetracycline discoloration” on the baby’s teeth.
- As a result;
Nutrition during pregnancy is very important for the general health and oral and dental health of both the mother and the baby. During pregnancy, the baby’s tooth development begins at the 5th and 6th weeks.
In terms of oral and dental health, during the whole pregnancy period: A, C, D vitamins, fruits and vegetables rich in phosphorus and calcium, cereal, milk and dairy products, meat, fish and eggs should be taken in a balanced way. If adequate oral and dental care is provided along with a good diet, a different tooth and gum problem will not be encountered during pregnancy.
Therefore, daily oral and dental care should not be interrupted. Because there is a direct relationship between plaque accumulation, gum disease and hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy. The increase in hormones during pregnancy causes the oral mucosa to be sensitive to external factors, especially bacterial plaques.
Plaque accumulation should be prevented by effective dental care by using a toothbrush twice a day and floss once.