Obsessive compulsive disorder


“A. Presence of obsessions (obsessions), compulsions (compulsions), or both:


1. Recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are sometimes experienced as intrusive and involuntary, causing marked anxiety or distress in most people. (eg:

2. The person tries to ignore or suppress these thoughts, urges, or images, or attempts to confront them (performing a compulsion) with another thought or action.

Compulsions (Compulsions)

1. Repetitive behaviors (e.g., handwashing, organizing, trying) or mental acts (e.g., saying religiously valued words, counting, uttering words in silence) in response to one’s obsession or that one feels compelled to perform according to strict rules. recursion).

2. These behaviors or mental acts are intended to prevent or reduce anxiety or distress, or to avoid a feared event or situation; however, these behaviors or mental acts are not realistically relevant to the situations in which they are designed to be neutralized or protected, or are excessive.

Note: Young children may not be able to articulate the purpose of these behaviors or mental actions.” (American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5), from the Diagnostic Criteria Book, trans, Köroğlu E, Hekimler Publication Association, Ankara, 2014)

  • OCD is diagnosed if the obsessions or compulsions take up more than 1 hour a day and cause a decrease in functionality.

  • When OCD is not intervened, it drags the person into an inextricable vortex. It is the cycle of thoughts that he can’t get out of his mind and behaviors that he can’t stop himself to do.


1. Obsessive thoughts, impulses, images, or doubts(They are unwanted thoughts that the person cannot get rid of. They are resistant and difficult to control. They often contain thoughts that are the opposite of one’s own sense of identity. For example: the person is a very helpful and good person, but he may have thoughts of harming others that he cannot get rid of.)

2. Excessive perception of harm, danger and responsibility (misinterpretation patterns)

(When a person encounters a thought that he does not like and cannot get rid of, automatic thoughts are accompanied by catastrophic, unrealistic thoughts about this thought. One’s main fear is that his thought turns into a real action. exaggerated responsibilitycan be loaded, in such cases possible may obsessively exaggerate danger and its consequences(exaggerating the probability and severity of occurrence), believe that the power of thought and the power of action are equal, and may come to the conclusion that he is a bad person because he thinks of bad thoughts . In order to get rid of undesirable thoughts and to remove them, so that one’s thoughts do not come true, mental control can resort to methods; but this does not lessen the severity of the thought. Whether or not your compulsive thoughts will come true is an intense struggle. feeling uncertain and unable to decide what to do causes. Individuals with OCD perfectionist They have attitudes. In cases that are slightly below perfect; incompleteness causes them to experience a feeling of incompleteness. People fear that if they lose control over their thoughts, they will go crazy and lose themselves.)

3. The person experiences intense distress due to thoughts that he cannot get rid of and tire him.

4. Compulsions, neutralization and thought control (Individuals may engage in thought control to get rid of their obsessive thoughts, behaviors they feel compelled to do, or neutralization efforts to eliminate the effects of their obsessions.)

“Rasmussen and Eisen (1998) in their study with people with OCD;

:61% control difficulties

50% wash challenges

36% counting rituals

34% need to ask or confess (approval)

28% symmetry and precision accuracy

It was found that there was 18% hoarding behavior.” (C.Purdon, D. Clark, “Coping with Obsessions”. trans. A. Karaosmanoğlu, Psychonet)

Thought control: People with OCD may have developed thought control systems to get rid of their obsessive thoughts. When they encounter an undesirable thought, they try to stay away from whatever might bring that thought to their mind, to avoidthey can work they may try to convince themselves that the thought is unimportant,falling on their minds stop thinking for ‘Stop!’ they can repeat to themselves. They get angry at themselves for having such thoughts in their minds. they can punish themselves(stupid me) or they make an effort to divert their attention to different points.

Compulsions: Behaviors that a person feels compelled to do in order to mitigate the harm of obsessive thinking. (eg washing hands, counting…) Compulsive behaviors also include control behaviors. (constantly checking receipts at home, checking whether they are gay, constantly questioning whether they have sinned, researching…)

Neutralizations: Focusing on good thought, bringing to mind in order to break the effect of bad thought.

Compulsive and neutralizing behaviors: includes intentional and excessive behaviors that the person consistently does against compulsive thinking. People feel intense pressure and desire to do these behaviors. They experience the same feeling of heroin. They willingly practice compulsions and neutralizations, and then feel trapped by these behaviors that they have no control over. They do all this to get rid of the thoughts that cause them distress and restlessness. BUT short-term relief breeds long-term servitude.

5. Hypersensitivity to anything related to obsessions: All these thought, behavior patterns and neutralization efforts are not enough to stop the OCD vortex, and even increase the sensitivity of the obsessions. Increasing sensitivity rewinds the loop… (1,2,3,4,5,1,2,3,4,5….)

The most effective method in the treatment of OCD is Cognitive Behavioral Therapies. While studying OCD in CBT, restructuring and coping with erroneous interpretations in thought patterns are studied by gradually controlling them. Schema therapy can also be used while working with CBT: People with OCD The vulnerability scheme is quite high.

Although drug treatment in OCD helps to prevent unwanted thoughts and impulses, it cannot provide a permanent effect like therapy.

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