What is obesity?
In the daily life of the individual; There is a need for energy that varies according to age, gender, physical activity, genetic and physiological characteristics.
In order to maintain a healthy life, the energy consumed and the energy consumed must be kept in balance. The fact that the energy taken in daily life is more than the energy spent causes the energy that cannot be spent to be stored as fat in the body. The storage of excess energy as fat in the body also raises the risk of obesity. In a more general definition, obesity is excessive fat accumulation in the body. Obesity is a problem that is directly related to genetic, familial, psychological and environmental effects.
Obesity is one of the most important health problems of developed and developing countries today.
What are the factors that cause obesity?
Today, depending on the changes and advances in technology, both business and social life are getting easier. This facilitation significantly limits the daily movements of individuals.
A sedentary lifestyle is one of the biggest causes of obesity. Apart from the sedentary life of the individual, excessive weight gain by eating irregularly and poorly also raises the risk of obesity. The World Health Organization has defined obesity as excessive fat accumulation in the body at a rate that impairs health.
Health problems caused by obesity
If measures are not taken against obesity, the person will experience various health problems. These:
- Heart attack risk and coronary artery disease
- Severe sleep apnea and various respiratory problems
- Paralysis due to stroke risk
- Vascular occlusions
- fatty liver
- High blood fats ( triglyceride and cholesterol )
- sexual dysfunctions
How is obesity treated?
1. Medical nutrition therapy (Diet therapy)
Medical nutrition plays a leading role in obesity treatments. With this feeding method;
• It is aimed to reduce the body weight to the level it should be according to the height. Medical nutrition therapies are specific to the individual.
• The weight loss diets to be applied in the treatment should be compatible with the principles of adequate and balanced nutrition.
• The purpose of medical nutrition is to acquire a correct eating habit and to maintain this habit throughout life.
2. Exercise therapy
The aim of exercise therapy is to reduce adipose tissue and abdominal fat through physical activity. Exercise therapy is a supportive treatment method for medical nutrition therapy. With exercise therapy, patients with obesity problems are prevented from gaining weight and losing weight is provided.
In exercise therapy, adults should exercise between 30 and 45 minutes every day. Regular walking at a moderate pace is the most important factor in exercise therapy. With exercise therapy, it is aimed to keep the individual with obesity problem physically active every day.
The exercise program recommended for the obese individual should be specific to the individual. At the same time, the program should not bore the person and should be made in harmony with the daily life habits of the individual.
3. Pharmacological treatment (Drug therapy)
Drugs in pharmacological treatment to be applied to obese people should only be used under the supervision of a doctor. Drugs that a person takes unconsciously can cause many side effects. The safety of the drugs used should be determined in terms of health, they should be suitable for the cause of obesity and should not be addictive. In order for drug therapy to be successful, the patient should also maintain medical nutrition habits and exercise therapy. It is also very important to visit a doctor regularly.
4. Surgical intervention
Surgical treatment of obesity is divided into two:
- Bariatric surgery practice
The main purpose of surgical treatment is to reduce the amount of food taken with food, to suppress the patient’s appetite and to impair the absorption of some of the eaten food. The main purpose of all these processes is to ensure that the person is satiated more easily with less food. Since the daily energy attempt will be limited, the person starts to burn from the fat stores and thus loses weight.
The reason why it is the most successful treatment among the known weight loss methods in obesity surgery is the management of the stomach volume and the surgical operation rather than the personal preferences of the individual. However, after the surgical operation, the person will be full quickly with a very small portion and will not feel hungry. Therefore, bariatric surgery is the most successful and healthy weight loss method.
- Reconstructive surgery practice
The aim of reconstructive treatment is the local removal of adipose tissues formed in various parts of the body. Reconstructive treatment is mainly aesthetic. With this treatment, it is aimed to reduce the excess fat only in a certain body localization of the patient, otherwise it is not a weight loss method in general.