Nutritional therapy in thyroid diseases


The thyroid gland regulates growth and metabolism with the hormones it secretes. It secretes a group of hormones, namely thyroxine (T4) and thyriothyronine (T3). These hormones help regulate a person’s growth and metabolism. T4 is the inactive form of T3. T3 has important effects on weight, cholesterol, energy, memory, menstrual cycle, skin, hair, body temperature, muscle strength and heart rate.

Thyroid diseases with a high genetic predisposition can be seen at any age. It is even more likely to occur in premenopausal and older women. Depending on the type of thyroid problem, signs and symptoms differ. Thyroid symptoms require professional help.


It is a rather slow metabolism as a result of the thyroid gland not producing enough T3 and T4. Symptoms include weakness, lethargy, weight gain, depressed mood, hair loss, and pale dry, flaky skin. A low level of the active form of the thyroid hormone can cause very light or heavy menstrual periods, as well as irregular or missing menstrual periods. It can develop as a result of congenital, autoimmune diseases, Hashimoto’s thyroid, some drugs, removal of the thyroid gland and hyperthyroid treatment.


It is the overactivity of the thyroid gland that causes the metabolism to work too fast. Hyperactivity, restlessness, unexpected weight loss, hair loss, thinned and dry skin can be seen. It can develop as a result of Graves’ disease or thyroiditis (thyroid gland infection).

Thyroid Diet

Although it does not cure thyroid disease, it helps regulate problems caused by the thyroid gland not working properly. The thyroid diet should be responsive to your needs and contain potential nutrient deficiencies.

Hypothyroidism Diet

Calcium: Drugs containing levothyroxine, which balance hormone levels, interact with calcium source foods and reduce the effects of drugs. For this reason, approximately 4 hours should be left between the consumption of foods such as milk, yogurt, cheese, kefir and the time of taking the drug. A similar approach should be followed in the consumption of soy-containing foods.

Iodine: The thyroid gland needs the mineral iodine to function normally. Adults are recommended to take 150mcg of iodine daily, which is comfortable with a balanced diet. It is generally not recommended for those with hypothyroidism to take high-iodine supplements, as it can worsen the condition. Too little iodine can cause goiter, that is, the enlargement of the thyroid gland.

Cruciferous Vegetables: Foods such as cabbage, broccoli, turnip, brussels sprouts do not adversely affect your thyroid health unless they are consumed in high amounts. In other words, these foods consumed in moderate amounts in a varied diet will not have a negative effect on your health. When it is desired to consume these foods, which have a negative effect on the thyroid gland when cooked, 150 grams per day will be appropriate.

Gluten: May adversely affect the absorption of hormone therapy from the gut. Controlled amounts of whole grains should be given priority.

Fatty foods: Negatively affect thyroid hormone production and absorption of hormone therapy from the intestines.

Sugary Foods: In addition to their high calories, they also increase appetite.

Packaged Foods: In hypothyroidism, which is recommended to consume 1.5 g sodium daily, packaged foods that may have high sodium content should be consumed in a controlled manner.

Alcohol: Apart from its toxic effect on the thyroid gland, it also suppresses the body’s ability to use thyroid hormone.

Soy: Estrogen can interfere with the body’s ability to use thyroid hormone. Soy is loaded with phytoestrogens.

Heart disease Risk

Those with low active thyroid hormone levels are at higher risk of heart disease because they are prone to weight gain. Because low thyroid hormone levels also increase blood pressure, cholesterol and triglyceride values. Cholesterol values ​​of those whose hormone values ​​are in balance also normalize.

Diabetes Risk

Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism also affect carbohydrate metabolism and glucose utilization. For this reason, diabetic nutrition recommendations should also be taken into account in the nutrition plan.


According to the Canadian Thyroid Foundation’s recommendations for healthy eating in thyroid diseases; The appropriate portion amounts to be consumed from the 4 food groups are as follows. Your portion size varies depending on age, gender, weight, and activity level. Choosing small portions in hypothyroidism and high portion numbers in hyperthyroidism will be more suitable for energy balance.











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