The transport of many substances in the body, especially oxygen, nutrients and hormones, takes place through the blood circulation. The cells responsible for oxygen transport in the bloodstream are called red blood cells (erythrocytes), while the cells responsible for immunity are called white blood cells (leukocytes), and the cells responsible for coagulation are called platelets. Conditions that adversely affect these cells and their functions are referred to as blood disorders. Medicana Avcılar Hospital Internal Medicine Specialist, Exp. Dr. Adnan Özdolap gave detailed information about various blood diseases.
What are Blood Diseases?
Dr. Adnan Özdolap, ”Any condition that negatively affects the number of cells in the circulatory system and their functions can be evaluated in blood diseases. For example, conditions that result in a decrease in the number of red blood cells called erythrocytes and thus a decrease in the amount of oxygen carried in the blood cause a blood disease known as anemia. One of the conditions that can cause a decrease in the number of cells is nutritional deficiencies. Anemia may occur in case of deficiencies of vitamins such as folic acid and B12, which are necessary for the production of these cells in the bone marrow. The iron-containing protein structure called hemoglobin in the erythrocytes; It takes part in the transport of oxygen between the lungs, heart and tissues. Therefore, if enough iron cannot be taken into the body with nutrition, hemoglobin cannot be produced and anemia occurs. In thalassemia, another blood disease related to hemoglobin, the source of the problem is the abnormally produced hemoglobin molecule. Thalassemia, which occurs as a result of a mutation in the genes related to hemoglobin production, is among the genetic diseases that show familial inheritance.
Decreased Platelet Count Is Risky
Some DNA mutations can result in excessive production of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the bone marrow. Dr. Adnan Özdolap emphasized that in this disorder, which is expressed as polycythemia vera, it is necessary to be careful because the decrease in blood flow may result in a predisposition to coagulation. If the number of platelets falls far below normal, excessive bleeding may occur due to delayed coagulation, even in minor traumas. At the same time, the decrease in the number of platelets puts the person at risk for internal bleeding. Apart from a decrease in the number of platelets, the blood disease called hemophilia occurs in the absence of various protein-structured factors necessary for these cells to perform their clotting function. Hemophilia, which is prone to bleeding, is among the genetically transmitted diseases such as thalassemia. If the number of platelets is much higher than normal, there is a predisposition to coagulation. It is important because the clots that may form in the large vessels may prevent the blood circulation to structures such as the heart and brain, resulting in conditions such as stroke or heart attack. ”
Excessive Sweating May Be a Sign of Lymph Node Enlarged Leukemia
Dr. Özdolap said, “In cases where the number of white blood cells, which is an important part of the immune system, decreases, body resistance decreases and susceptibility to infectious diseases increases. In various diseases affecting the bone marrow, a decrease in the number of white blood cells, called leukopenia, may occur if the spleen is overactive or after chemotherapy treatment. An increase in the number of leukocytes above normal can be seen in the blood cancer disease called leukemia. However, in leukemia, white blood cells, whose numbers are much higher than normal by constantly dividing in the bone marrow, cannot function fully. He underlined that excessive sweating, especially at night, and enlargement of lymph nodes in the neck or armpit area are findings that require further research on the presence of leukemia.