Nutrition in Trimester Pregnancy

A sweet rush surrounds the expectant mothers who receive the good news of pregnancy. They worry about many issues such as the health of their babies, whether they are fed enough and their development. A healthy diet is very important for both the mother’s health and the baby’s health. The nutrition of a special process such as pregnancy should also be special.

During pregnancy, expectant mothers can gain some nutritional habits that are actually wrong while thinking about the health of their baby. For example, eating for two people… It is also harmful to have a limited diet because of fear of gaining weight. Both malnutrition and overnutrition during pregnancy harm both mother and baby. Due to malnutrition, the mother may experience weight loss, anemia, tooth decay, osteomalacia, and the risk of giving birth to a baby with low birth weight or various health problems may increase. Excessive weight gain during pregnancy can cause risky situations for the mother and baby, such as cesarean delivery, delayed delivery, meconium aspiration in the baby (popularly known as the baby swallowing feces in the womb).

It is sufficient for a normal-weight individual to gain 11.5-14 kg, a low-weight individual 12.5-18 kg, an overweight individual 7-11.5 kg, and an obese individual 5-9 kg.

Pregnancy is divided into trimesters. Each of these periods is called a trimester. The first trimester is called the “First Trimester”, the second trimester is called the “Second Trimester” and the last trimester is called the “Third Trimester”.

NUTRITION IN THE FIRST TRIMESTER (FIRST 3 MONTHS PERIOD)

During pregnancy, the need for both energy and nutrients increases as the baby provides its needs from the mother. However, the baby’s needs are minimal in the first 3 months of pregnancy, which we call the first trimester, and this period can be completed without gaining weight.

Nausea and vomiting, known as the harbinger of pregnancy, are usually seen in the first trimester. This is due to hormonal changes and smell sensitivity during pregnancy. Nausea during pregnancy is normal and does not harm either mother or baby. However, if the fluid and electrolyte loss in the mother as a result of severe vomiting is not treated, it will harm the mother and the baby. This situation requires serious treatment and follow-up under the control of a physician.

Tips to prevent or alleviate nausea during pregnancy

  • Morning sickness is most common during pregnancy. Before getting out of bed, consuming foods that reduce stomach acid such as saltine crackers, dry bread and chickpeas can prevent nausea.

  • Take care to eat little and often.

  • Do not choose excessively oily, spicy, sugary foods.

  • Sensitivity to odors occurs during pregnancy. In the process of nausea, heavy-smelling foods and perfumes that can cause nausea should be avoided.

  • Stress and fatigue increase nausea. Therefore, it is very important to get enough rest and stay away from stress.

  • Do not consume liquid foods with the main meals as they will fill the stomach too much. You can shift liquid foods to snacks.

  • Liquids should be consumed in sips, not all at once.

  • Foods such as apple, lemonade, mint/mint tea, ginger/ginger tea, yogurt, boiled potatoes can help reduce nausea.

in pregnancy folic acid intake is especially important in the first 3 months. In fact, it is necessary to use folic acid three months before in planned pregnancies. Because the baby’s brain and spinal cord system occurs together with the neural tube in the mother in the first 3 months. If the mother’s folic acid level is not sufficient, a neural tube defect may be seen and a problem may occur in the baby. It is also necessary to reduce the risk of congenital (congenital) problems such as cleft palate and heart. A daily intake of at least 400 mg of folic acid is necessary for pregnant individuals. Dark green leafy vegetables containing plenty of folic acid, legumes, eggs, cauliflower, whole grains, milk and products should be included in the diet. However, since it is not possible to meet this need with nutrition, supplements should be used under the supervision of a doctor.

In the first trimester of pregnancy, expectant mothers should definitely prefer quality protein sources such as meat, chicken, fish and eggs for at least one meal. Dried legumes, which are both a vegetable protein source and high fiber content, should be consumed two days a week. Calcium intake is very important for the baby’s bone health and to prevent tooth loss and osteomalacia in the mother. For this, 2 glasses of milk / yoghurt / kefir and 1-2 slices of cheese should be added to the daily diet. Molasses, legumes and dark green leafy vegetables are also sources of calcium. To provide the necessary vitamins and minerals and increase fiber intake, 5-6 servings of vegetables and fruits should be consumed daily. The variety of vitamins and minerals can be increased by consuming any color of fruit/vegetable. Carbohydrates, our main source of energy, should not be neglected. Whole grain products, bulgur, brown rice, whole wheat pasta, dried legumes, etc., which have high nutritional value and do not cause sudden changes in blood sugar as a carbohydrate source. must be consumed.

In addition to calcium and phosphorus, the increased need for nutrients such as iron, vitamin D, iodine, vitamin B12 and vitamin C should be provided with nutrition in terms of maternal and infant health. In cases where it cannot be provided with nutrition, supplementation should be used with the approval of the doctor. Do not use supplements without consulting a doctor.

One of the most important issues is water consumption. Care should be taken to consume 2.5-3 liters of water daily. Ayran, sugar-free compote/lemonade, freshly squeezed fruit juices are among the beverages that can be preferred during pregnancy to increase fluid intake.

The first trimester (first trimester) is very important for baby development. For this reason, it is necessary to stay away from the consumption of certain foods and substances, especially in the first three months, as they pose a risk to the health of the mother and baby (premature birth, stillbirth, birth anomalies, etc.). These;

  • Alcohol/cigarettes

  • Excessive intake of caffeine (Tea, coffee, chocolate, cocoa cola, etc. contain caffeine.)

  • Herbal teas such as sage, senna, basil, raspberry, flaxseed

  • Unpasteurized milk and foods made with it

  • Raw or undercooked meat/chicken/fish products

  • raw egg

  • Unwashed fruits and vegetables

  • Seafood containing heavy metals (Mackerel, shark, swordfish, tile fish, mussel, etc.)

  • over-consumed liver

  • Sausage, salami, sausage, etc. processed meat products

  • Acidic drinks, canned juices, long-life canned, etc.

  • Pollen

A Sample Healthy Eating Program for the First Trimester

BREAKFAST

1 boiled egg

1 slice of cheese (1 slice = 2 finger size)

5-10 low-salt olives or 2-3 whole walnuts

Lots of greens, cucumbers, tomatoes

1 teaspoon honey or jam

1-2 thin slices of whole wheat bread (1 slice = 1 palm size = 25 g)

DREAM MEAL

1 portion of fresh fruit

3 whole walnuts

LUNCH

Meat/chicken/fish in the size of 3 meatballs (Grilled/oven/boiled)

A colorful salad

1 glass of buttermilk

1-2 thin slices of whole wheat bread

DREAM MEAL

1 cup unsweetened lemonade

7 raw almonds or hazelnuts

2 grissini

DINNER

1 ladle of soup

7-8 tablespoons of vegetable food

A colorful salad

1 bowl of yogurt

1 thin slice of whole wheat bread

DREAM MEAL

1 portion of fresh fruit

1 cup plain kefir

* Consume 2.5-3 liters of water every day.

* It is appropriate to prepare meals using olive oil.

*These amounts are stated as averages. These amounts can be reduced or increased according to personal characteristics.

NUTRITION IN THE SECOND TRIMESTER (SECOND 3-MONTH PERIOD)

Healthy nutrition, which is very essential from the moment the first pregnancy news is heard, is the second trimester, which we call 14.-26. It is also very important in the second trimester, which covers weeks. Issues that are important in the first trimester are also important in this period.

We said that since the baby’s needs are minimal in the first trimester, the mother does not need to add much to her daily diet and gain weight. However, this situation changes a little in the second trimester. Due to the growth of the baby, the need for nutrients and energy increases, so the expectant mother should add 300 calories per day to her diet to meet the increasing need.

Especially from week 20 Then it should be added to the diet. Because this period is the period when the baby starts to grow and develop rapidly. Already in this period, the loss of appetite and inability to eat in the first trimester leaves its place to the opposite, increased appetite. Expectant mothers with an increased appetite should not stress about gaining excess weight. This excess energy is used in the preparation of the fat depot to be used in milk release during the change in the body, baby growth and breastfeeding. Of course, this does not mean two-person or excessive consumption. It should be avoided as much as possible from nutritious sweets and pastries containing excessive sugar and fat.

Protein, complex carbohydrates, healthy fats, vegetables and fruits should be consumed in a balanced way to meet the increased energy, vitamin and mineral needs in the second trimester of pregnancy. In the second trimester of pregnancy, expectant mothers should definitely prefer quality protein sources such as meat, chicken, fish and eggs in at least two meals. Dried legumes, which are both a source of vegetable protein, should be included in the weekly diet for 2 days.

The increased need for nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin D, iodine, vitamin B12 and vitamin C, which we mentioned in the first trimester, must be met. Iron is one of the most important nutrients in the second trimester. In this period when growth and development accelerate, the need for iron increases due to the increase in blood volume. If this increased need is not met, the mother suffers from anemia, which is characterized by symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, and lack of resistance to infections. As a result of maternal anemia, low birth weight infants and even infant deaths may occur.

To prevent iron deficiency anemia that may occur during pregnancy;

  • Food groups rich in iron, such as red meat, poultry, eggs, legumes, whole grains, molasses, nuts, should be included in the daily diet.

  • Consuming fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C (pepper, citrus fruits, kiwi, spinach,…) with meals increases iron absorption.

  • Tea and coffee consumed with meals prevent iron absorption. It should be consumed 1-2 hours before or after meals and the amount should be limited.

  • If the pregnant individual cannot meet the increased iron requirement with his diet, he may need to use iron supplements with the approval of the doctor / dietitian.

In the second trimester, it is necessary to pay attention to vitamin B12. Due to vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy, megaloblastic anemia, distributional anomalies and problems in the nervous system occur. Its nutritional sources are animal foods such as organ meats, red meat, milk, cheese, egg yolk, fish and are not found in plant foods. As a result, babies of vegetarian mothers may have neurological disorders. For this reason, pregnant women who have limited access to vegetarian or animal foods may require supplementation under the control of a doctor.

A Sample Healthy Eating Program for the Second Trimester

BREAKFAST

1 boiled egg or omelet (with 1 teaspoon of oil, it can be with vegetables.)

2 slices of cheese (1 slice = 2 finger size)

5-10 low-salt olives or 2-3 whole walnuts

Lots of greens, cucumbers, tomatoes

1 tablespoon of tahini-molasses

2 thin slices of whole wheat bread (1 slice = 1 palm size = 25 g)

DREAM MEAL

1 portion of fresh fruit

1 glass of buttermilk

10-12 pistachios or 7 raw almonds

LUNCH

Meat/chicken/fish in the size of 3 meatballs (Grilled/oven/boiled)

A colorful salad

1 glass of ayran or 1 bowl of tzatziki

2 thin slices of whole wheat bread

DREAM MEAL

1 portion of fresh fruit

3 tablespoons of yogurt

2 tablespoons of oatmeal

DINNER

1 ladle of soup

8 tablespoons of vegetable food

A colorful salad

1 bowl of yogurt

1-2 thin slices of whole wheat bread

DREAM MEAL

1 portion of fresh fruit

1 glass of water Milk

* Consume 2.5-3 liters of water every day.

* It is appropriate to prepare meals using olive oil.

*These amounts are stated as averages. These amounts can be reduced or increased according to personal characteristics.

NUTRITION IN THE THIRD TRIMESTER (LAST 3 MONTHS PERIOD)

Healthy nutrition, which is very essential from the moment the first pregnancy news is received, is the 27th-40th day of the third trimester, which we call. It is also very important in the last 3 months, which includes weeks. Issues that are important in the first and second trimesters are also important in this period.

Protein, complex carbohydrates, healthy fats, vegetables and fruits should be consumed in sufficient quantities to provide the necessary energy and nutrients. The healthy eating rules that I mentioned in the first and second trimesters are also valid in the last trimester. Light exercises to be done under expert control will also be beneficial.

The period with the highest weight gain is the third trimester. Because the baby grows the fastest during this period. During this period of rapid growth, protein intake should be increased. 2 slices of cheese + 1 egg for breakfast; 2 -3 glasses of milk, yogurt, kefir daily; A plate of meat for lunch and dinner or daily consumption of 150-200 grams of meat/chicken/fish meets the protein requirement.

Omega 3 intake, which is effective in brain development, should be given importance in the third trimester of pregnancy. Foods such as oily fish such as salmon, walnuts, purslane are rich in Omega 3. If it cannot be taken in sufficient amounts with nutrition, supplements should be used under the control of a doctor.

Iron for increased blood volume and adequate calcium intake for bone development are also important in this period. Foods containing magnesium (whole grains, legumes, raw nuts, dark green leafy vegetables) and potassium (banana, apricot, potato, etc.), which have duties such as heart health and nerve conduction, should be included in the daily diet.

In the third trimester of pregnancy, swelling (edema) in the feet and hands may occur. Therefore, the consumption of salt and sugar, which cause edema, should be limited. Foods such as pineapple, cucumber, kiwi, blueberry, banana can help relieve edema. Water consumption should also be about 2.5-3 liters.

Constipation, one of the problems faced by pregnant women during pregnancy, is common in the last trimester. This is caused by the fact that some pregnancy-related hormones slow down bowel movements, decrease in movement due to weight gain, and errors in the diet.

Tips to prevent or alleviate constipation:

  • Consumption of plenty and especially warm liquids helps the intestines to work regularly. Daily water consumption should not fall below 2.5-3 liters.

  • Plenty of fiber, like plenty of fluids, helps the intestines to work regularly. Foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grain products, legumes have high fiber content. You can increase your fiber amount by consuming at least 5 servings of vegetables and fruits, bulgur, oatmeal, whole grain bread and other products, and legumes twice a week.

  • If you move, your intestines move too. For this reason, walking and light exercises will be good for the problem of constipation.

  • Prune, apricot, fig or compote made with natural laxative effects can prevent constipation.

  • Drugs with a laxative effect should not be used during pregnancy!

Heartburn / heartburn, which is one of the most common problems in pregnancy, especially in the last three months of pregnancy, occurs as a result of pressure on the stomach with the growth of the baby.

Tips to prevent or alleviate heartburn/burn:

  • Be careful not to consume excessive sauce, creamy and oily foods.

  • Eat little and often.

  • Tea, coffee etc. Do not consume caffeinated beverages as they will increase heartburn and heartburn.

  • Taking light walks after a meal can help.

  • Do not wear clothes that put pressure on your stomach.

  • Choose high pillows while sleeping.

A Sample Healthy Eating Program for the Third Trimester

BREAKFAST

1 boiled egg

2 slices of cheese (1 slice = 2 finger size)

10 low-salt olives or 4 whole walnuts

Lots of greens, cucumbers, tomatoes

1 tablespoon of tahini-molasses

1 serving of fruit

2 thin slices of whole wheat bread (1 slice = 1 palm size = 25 g)

DREAM MEAL

1 portion of fresh fruit

1 cup of popcorn

1 tablespoon raw pumpkin seeds

LUNCH

1 plate of meat dish (can be chicken, fish or red meat.)

colorful salad

1 bowl of yogurt

2 thin slices of whole wheat bread or 4-5 tablespoons of bulgur/pasta

DREAM MEAL

1 cup of linden tea

Sandwich prepared using 2 thin slices of whole wheat bread, 1 slice of cheese, tomato, cucumber and greens

DINNER

1 ladle of soup

1 plate of legumes or vegetables with meat

A colorful salad

1 glass of buttermilk

1 thin slice of whole wheat bread

DREAM MEAL

1 portion of fresh fruit

1 cup plain kefir

5 raw almonds

* Consume 2.5-3 liters of water every day.

* It is appropriate to prepare meals using olive oil.

*These amounts are stated as averages. These amounts can be reduced or increased according to personal characteristics.

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