Nutrition in Sports

  • To empty the stomach, the meal should be consumed 3-4 hours before the competition.

Meal consumed 3-4 hours before the competition:

  • It should contain 200-350 g of carbohydrates.

  • To avoid gastrointestinal distress, the carbohydrate and calorie content of the meal consumed should be reduced as the race approaches.

  • For example, if 4 g/kg of carbohydrates are consumed 4 hours before the competition, 1 g/kg of carbohydrates should be consumed 1 hour before.

  • The pre-competition meal can be consumed as a main meal or a snack.

For example, a snack to be consumed 1-1.5 hours before the competition;

  • Provides 100-300 kcal of energy

  • Containing moderate protein (50g)

  • Contains little fat

  • Most importantly, it should be a meal rich in complex carbohydrates containing vitamins and minerals.

Nutrition During Competition

  • The main reason for nutrient consumption during competition or match is to provide the carbohydrates necessary to compensate for fluid losses and maintain blood glucose levels.

  • Foods containing 30-60 g of carbohydrates should be consumed every hour (240 ml sports drink contains 14-24 grams).

  • Consuming carbohydrates during performance:

  • The athlete did not load carbohydrates.

  • No pre-exercise meals

  • Insufficient fluid and nutrients before exercise

  • Restricted energy for weight loss

  • It becomes even more important when exercising in extreme conditions (such as hot, cold, high altitude).

  • Snacks containing 50 g of carbohydrates:

  • 500ml juice

  • 3 medium fruits

  • 1 slice of honey bread

  • 1 baked potato

  • 1 sports bar (check label)

  • 80 g dried fruit

  • 1 bowl of boiled rice

Post-Competition Nutrition

  • Glycogen stores in muscles 1.5-2 hours

  • ejaculates after a workout.

  • Post-competition nutrient intake is very important for the rapid resynthesis of muscle and liver glycogen, which is the fuel tank for the next competition or training.

  • After an intense competition, the organism continues to use its fuel tanks due to the presence of adrenaline in the circulation.

  • With food consumption, the release of insulin is stimulated and the released insulin inhibits the effect of adrenaline and facilitates the rapid resynthesis of glycogen.

  • There is a state of equilibrium in the organism.

  • In addition, considering that after each competition or training is the beginning of the next competition and training, the importance of the recovery period can be better understood.

  • The most effective way to replenish the empty stores is to consume high-carbohydrate foods in the first 2 hours after exercise.

  • Hourly after exercise, only 5% of the muscle glycogen used during competition or competition is resynthesized.

  • Accordingly, after an intense competition or exercise, at least 20 hours and approximately 600 g carbohydrate consumption is required for the re-synthesis of glycogen.

  • Consumption of carbohydrates immediately after exercise allows glycogen stores to recover in a shorter time than starting to consume carbohydrates 2 hours later.

  • When 2g/kg of carbohydrate is consumed immediately afterwards, muscle glycogen synthesis is 15 mmol/kg.

  • After 2 hours, that is, when carbohydrate is consumed, muscle glycogen synthesis decreases by 66% and the synthesis falls to 5 mmol/kg.

  • When fed 4 hours later, total muscle glycogen synthesis is 45% slower than when fed immediately after exercise.

  • In order to replenish muscle glycogen stores, the athlete should be advised to consume 1-2 g/kg of carbohydrates after performance and repeat every hour for 4 hours.



  • Whole grain bread with molasses, jam, honey, peanut butter

  • Cheese Sandwich-Toast

  • Turkey Sandwich

  • Wasa/Cracker/Etimek

  • Low-fat milk, yogurt

  • Oats with low-fat milk

  • Fruit salad

  • Fruit-Vegetable smoothie

  • Fresh fruit

  • Squeezed juice

  • Handful of walnuts, almonds, peanuts


  • Grilled chicken sandwich, baked potato-vegetable, fruit salad

  • Vegetable Wrap, Baked Potato, Squeezed Fruit Juice

  • Boiled/grilled chicken, vegetable garnish, rice, compote

  • Smoked turkey, whole grain bread, soup, fresh fruit

  • Baked vegetables, rice, kidney beans, green salad, fruit salad, low-fat yogurt


  • Pasta with tomato sauce, steamed vegetables, green salad, cheese or yogurt

  • Vegetable pizza, salad, squeezed fruit juice

  • Peas, rice, salad, tzatziki, fruit

  • Grilled fish, green salad, steamed vegetables, baked potato, iced tea


  • Whole grain bread and peanut butter

  • Fresh fruit

  • Cracker

  • Whole grain crackers and turkey slices

  • Fat free popcorn

  • Peanuts, almonds, hazelnuts

  • Cheese + Crackers

  • sports bars


  • 1 hour or more before the competition;

    • Fresh fruit, eg; peeled apple, peach, grape, banana

    • sports bars

    • sports drinks

  • 2-3 hours before the competition;

    • Fresh fruit, vegetables or juices

    • Bread, crackers, fat-free cake, low-fat cheese, low-fat yogurt, flatbread, sports bars

    • sports drinks

  • 3-4 hours before the competition;

    • Fresh fruit, vegetables or juices

    • Bread, crackers, baked potatoes, cereal mix with milk, low-fat yogurt, lean meat and cheese sandwich types, pasta with tomato sauce

    • sports drinks


Match meal: It is the most important meal that is eaten 3-4 hours before going on the field on the days of the match. It is mainly carbohydrates. There is very little meat, which is usually white meat. There are compotes and milk desserts that do not contain much sugar. Vegetables are not included. A snack high in carbohydrates, such as bread with jam, can be eaten 1.5 hours before the game. Carbohydrate supplements are given to the players immediately after the match. In the first half hour, usually while on the bus, an apple, a banana or a sandwich provides 100 grams of carbohydrates.


some time before the game

Just before the match

during the match

after the match

2-3 hours ago

Consume 500-750 ml of fluid

Drink 250 ml of liquid 10-30 minutes ago

Drink 250 ml of fluid every 15 minutes

Consume 500 ml of fluid for every ½ kg of loss

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