NUTRITION IN OLD AGE

Aging is an inevitable physiological process. In the functions of cells, tissues and organisms

They are multiple irreversible changes that occur at the molecular and biochemical level.

Age of Aging:

Chronic aging age of 65 years in developed countries,

Ages 60+ in United Nations

On the African continent, it starts between the ages of 50-65 depending on the region and country.

World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Aging;

65-75 years of Early Age,

Age 75-84 Middle Age

85+ years old age

World Health Organization; It is reported that the world elderly population is increasing by 5% per year. 20th century

Afterwards, a significant increase in the proportion of the elderly population was observed.

Decreased fertility

Development of health services (treatment of diseases)

Reduction in the incidence of chronic diseases,

Improvement of socio-economic situation,

Increasing living standards,

Better hygiene

With the reasons; increased life expectancy from birth to death.

HEALTHY AGING

6 factors affecting life expectancy in a study of 7000 people in California

detected. Three of them are related to nutrition.

avoiding alcohol consumption

regular meal pattern

Control of body weight

Regular and adequate sleep

not smoking

regular physical activity

SUFFICIENT AND BALANCED CONSUMPTION OF ALL NUTRIENTS FOR HEALTHY AGING

IT IS VERY IMPORTANT.

Magnesium is a cofactor for many enzymes. Its deficiency, hypertension, diabetes, colon cancer, etc.

associated with.

Vitamin D has a protective effect against degenerative diseases (osteoporosis, breast, pancreas,

colon cancer etc.)

Nutrients such as calcium, selenium, vitamin B12, niacin, choline, chromosomal breaks or

By having a protective effect against other DNA damage, it improves health and increases the quality of life.

Biotin, pantetonate, zinc, vitamin B6, riboflavin, iron, copper; by preventing mitochondrial degradation

delays aging.

Iron deficiency causes mitochondrial damage as a result of oxidative damage to DNA in experimental conditions.

caused. Conversely, excess iron increases oxidative stress due to neural sensitivity.

Zinc deficiency; can cause oxidative stress and DNA damage.

In humans, increased fat mass (obesity), abdominal (abdominal circumference) lubrication results in internal

increase in visceral fat stores surrounding the organs, metabolic syndrome in old age (hyperlipidemia,

dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, hypertension).

Energy requirement due to decrease in physical activity and metabolic rate with aging

approximately 20% decrease occurs. In individuals over 65 years of age, body fat tissue increases, lean body

mass and bone mineral density decrease.

Sarcopenic obesity with no decrease or increase in adipose tissue.

Loss of lean tissue is a common phenomenon in the aging process.

Appetite and Food Consumption Status

With a decrease in appetite, energy intake decreases by 1% per year in healthy aging. in appetite

The average food consumption was found to be 30% lower than that of young people due to physiological changes.

This causes a decrease in the consumption of all nutrients.

Sensitivity to taste and smell is reduced,

Stomach emptying is delayed

There is early satiety

Parallel to healthy aging, decrease in muscle mass and differences in other body composition

As a result, the production and circulating concentration of growth hormone (Growth Hormone GH) decreases. This

It also reduces food intake.

Decreased ghrelin hormone activity in the malnourished elderly leads to anorexia and weight loss.

makes a significant contribution.

NUTRITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE ELDERLY

55-60% of the energy should come from carbohydrates, 12-15% from protein and 25-30% from fat.

Proteins

protection of body tissues,

Maintaining muscle strength and function in the elderly, maximum muscle protein synthesis,

protection of the immune system,

bone health,

cognitive function

It is very important for Therefore, 25-30g of GOOD QUALITY protein at each meal increases muscle protein synthesis.

warns at the maximum level. Eggs, meat, chicken, fish, milk and its products are good sources. Oily

seeds (such as peanuts, walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts) and legumes are also good plant-based proteins.

Sugar consumption should be reduced. Consumption of bread made from whole grains is effective in terms of fiber intake.

will be. Vegetable and fruit consumption should be increased. In this way, constipation can be prevented. A

If he eats green leafy vegetables at one meal, he should focus on yellow and red vegetables in the other meal.

The World Health Organization recommends more than 400 grams of fruit and vegetables per day for people over 65 years of age.

recommends consumption.

250g of yogurt should be consumed per day.

Salt consumption should be limited to 5 g/day.

The sense of thirst decreases in the elderly. Frequent urination and less water retention in the body. Total

body water decreases. The kidneys’ ability to concentrate urine is reduced. At least 2 liters of fluid consumption

should be ensured.

Tea and coffee should be drunk 45 minutes before or after meals.

Meals should not be skipped and foods in four groups should be consumed at each meal.

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