nutrition during pregnancy

NUTRITION IN PREGNANCY:
Nutrition during pregnancy is important and the most curious subject of pregnant women. Birth and pregnancy have existed since the beginning of humanity, and our bodies have been doing this for millions of years and will continue to do so. The first thing you need to do is not to get stressed, when we eat a balanced diet and consume whole foods, you have already solved most of this problem.
If you have a balanced diet, you will not need to take vitamins from the outside. An iron pill will be enough just to fill the iron stores. Also, since your baby will think of himself first, he will get everything he needs from you.
– The weight to be gained during pregnancy is 9-15 kilos and an average of 12 kilos, this may vary according to your weight. However, under no circumstances should a pregnancy regimen be made.
-Dietary recipes such as a matchbox of cheese, 22 grams of fat, 68 grams of meat, will only stress you out.
-Normally, the increased calorie requirement compared to the pre-pregnancy period is 300 calories, which can be easily handled with 1-2 extra spoons at meals, which your body, which has already been programmed for this, will provide.
-First of all, we need to increase the number of meals per day. Instead of 3 meals, it is much more useful to eat 5-6 meals less, including snacks.
– Since it helps to prevent constipation, which is common in pregnancy, pulp (apricot, leek) and fiber foods (such as bran bread, oat bread) should be preferred more.
-It is absolutely necessary to increase fluid intake. 8-10 glasses of fluid should be consumed per day. There is no need for any restriction in salt consumption as long as it is not excessive. If it does not cause intestinal problems, you can also consume spicy foods if it suits your mouth taste.
– If you cannot consume milk or milk in terms of your calcium needs, the use of dairy products is absolutely important. You should consume one or two glasses of milk or a bowl of yogurt daily.
-You should consume acidic beverages such as tea, coffee, cola as little as possible. Tea reduces iron absorption. It is harmful because of caffeine in coffee and cola. It is not appropriate to consume more than 1-2 glasses.
– Folic acid prevents back opening when used before pregnancy. There is enough folic acid in food. When a balanced diet is provided, the probability of its deficiency is low. It is more beneficial to use before pregnancy when pregnancy is planned.
During pregnancy, 20% of the diet should consist of protein, 30% fat and 50% carbohydrates. However, many foods can contain both protein, carbohydrates and fat at the same time. For this reason, these ratios should be taken into account, but it should be tried to consume different kinds of foods as much as possible, not to follow up on a gram-by-gram basis. The need for carbohydrates should be tried to be met directly from fruits rather than sweets.
Healthy protein sources:
Chicken, turkey, fish, fat-free yogurt, low-fat cheese, eggs, beans, hazelnuts, peanuts, peanut butter, especially fish are important because they are rich in omega 3. If you cannot eat fish, eggs enriched with omega 3 are rich in omega 3.
Sources of healthy fats:
Consuming unsaturated fats (olive oil, sunflower oil,) instead of animal fats, which we call mostly saturated fat, fried foods and fast food style foods should be avoided.
Healthy sources of carbohydrates:
Fruits and vegetables are healthy sources of carbohydrates. Seasonal fruits and vegetables can be chosen that should be consumed every day. Canned fruits contain more sugar and canned vegetables contain more salt. They can be consumed, but fresh fruits and vegetables are better.
Bread, pasta, bulgur contains plenty of carbohydrates and is necessary for daily needs. However, it would be better if fibrous and wholemeal ones are preferred.
FOOD PYRAMID

In the food pyramid, the foods to be consumed are decreasing from the bottom to the top. However, you can make changes according to your budget.
Things to consider while preparing:
As the body resistance decreases during pregnancy, it is necessary to be more careful while preparing and consuming food.
Wash your hands before and after preparing food.
Cook foods such as meat, fish and eggs sufficiently and do not consume them raw.
Wash fruits and vegetables with plenty of water.
Do not consume unpasteurized milk and fruit juices.
Consume it while it is fresh, do not keep it in the refrigerator and outside too long.
When consuming fish, be selective when consuming fish, as fish grown in polluted seas contain heavy metals such as lead, which can be harmful to you and your baby.
Choline is an important nutrient for brain and intelligence development in early pregnancy. Eggs, chicken liver and veal liver are rich sources of choline. 2 eggs easily provide half of the daily choline need.
If you can’t drink milk, yogurt, orange juice, cheese, bone soup are also good sources of calcium.
Sweeteners other than saccharin are safe for pregnancy.
If you are a vegetarian, protein sources other than meat are dairy products, soybeans, nuts, etc.
For constipation, you should consume 8 glasses of water, plenty of fruit and vegetables.
You should not consume more than a glass of coffee and 1-2 cups of tea.
Eggs are a good source of protein, contain 18 vitamins and minerals, and can be preferred for their rich choline content and cheap price. It helps in brain development. It should not be consumed only raw and undercooked.
The important point in nutrition during pregnancy is to eat as diverse as possible, not one-sided.
RESOURCES AND NEEDS OF VITAMINS
VITAMIN A: Green leafy vegetables are also found. A normal diet has enough vitamin A. No supplementation is required.
VITAMIN B1: It is found in milk and raw grains, it is taken enough with the diet, so there is no need for supplementation.
VITAMIN B2:Green vegetables, milk, eggs and fish are also found, it does not need to be given additionally.
VITAMIN B6: Its main source is vegetables. No supplement is required.
VITAMIN B12: The most important source is animal products. Its deficiency is very rare, but very strict vegetarians can also be seen. If those who do not eat meat use animal products, there will be no deficiency.
VITAMIN C: It is abundant in fruits and vegetables. Its deficiency is rare.
VITAMIN D:It is found in milk and sunlight is important for it to be used by the body.
VITAMIN E:Animal protein and fat are also present. Dietary intake is sufficient.
VITAMIN K: It is found in green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, dairy products, eggs. Its transmission from mother to infant is limited. For this reason, it is injected into the baby after birth. Dietary intake is sufficient for the mother.
FOLIC ACID: It is found in fortified grains, dry foods such as dried beans, and green leafy vegetables. It is important to start 3 months before pregnancy and use it in the first three months to prevent neural tube defect (back opening in babies).
NIASIN:Poultry, fish are also available. It is provided adequately by diet. It does not need to be given additionally.
MINARELS:
IRON: 10% of the iron taken is absorbed, and it is important for blood production for both mother and baby during pregnancy. The dietary needs are not adequately met, so pregnancy should be given as an additional support. In dry foods such as animal protein, dried beans, in foods such as enriched cereals.
CALCIUM: Calcium is found in dairy products and vegetables such as green leafy cabbage, kale, turnips, and mustard. Vitamin D is required for its absorption from the body. There is enough in the normal diet, sometimes supplementation may be required as the need has increased in the last three months.
PHOSPHORUS:It takes part in bone formation and there is enough in the diet. There is no need for supplementation.
ZINC: Normally, it is sufficient to take with food. If there is too much iron intake then it can be given.
SODIUM: It is taken in sufficient amount by diet. It is contained in salt, if there is no other problem during pregnancy, salt restriction is not necessary, but excessive intake should be avoided. It should be noted that prepared foods and canned products contain more salt.
Vitamin tablets given during normal pregnancy usually contain the following vitamins and minerals:
Iron – 60 mg
Zinc – 15 mg
Calcium – 250mg
Vitamin B-6 – 2mg
Folic acid – 0.4 mg
Vitamin C – 50mg
Vitamin D – 5 mcg
Moreover :
Vitamin A(1.2mcg), B1 (1.8mg), B2 (2.6mg), B8(200mcg), Vitamin E(15mg), B5(15mg), B12(4mg), Magnesium(100mg), Phosphorus(125mg), Manganese (1mg), zinc (7.5mg) is in addition to vitamin tablets.

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