The DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder is examined under Cluster B in the Personality Disorders Section of the Reference Manual. This disorder, which draws attention in different times, situations and environments, is defined as a search or expectation of being liked by other people in young individuals (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
Individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder feel intensely liking themselves in terms of mental and physical aspects, the idea that they have superior abilities, and they constantly feel the need for attention and approval. People with this diagnosis generally like themselves more intensely than they normally would in many different ways (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016). They compare their own mental and physical characteristics with the spiritual and physical qualities of other individuals, and they tend to see themselves as much more qualified than other individuals. These people think that they deserve special attention and care in every environment they are in.
In addition to such thoughts that are not objective for them, these individuals generally demand that the people around them say praiseworthy words about themselves and all their behaviors, and show uninterrupted interest and concern for them. At the same time, they see that they should have higher level opportunities than other people and this is a right that they should have, but they demand to get these rights (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
Having such demands and expectations often causes people to be disappointed, while at the same time it can make them very upset.
Although individuals diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder seem to like themselves, the state of their self-esteem/value is dependent on hearing sentences containing interest, relevance and praise from other people and getting approval (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
When they are not praised as they demand, but criticized on the contrary, it can cause them to experience a state of low self-esteem. The fact that they become quite defensive against the criticisms that may come from their environment is related to the fact that their self-esteem is easily damaged and damaged (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
Individuals diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder tend to exhibit self-aggrandizement behaviors, desire to see themselves as superior to them, and use people to show them this way. They use the social relations they have established for these purposes (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
The reasons why individuals with a diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality Disorder exhibit selfish and egocentric attitudes in their relationships; lack of empathy skills and insensitivity to other people’s feelings and thoughts.
Another quality that needs to be addressed is that they are unsuccessful and incapable of establishing emotional bonds with other individuals and living things around them. They draw attention with their inadequacy in reconciliation and low conciliation, not showing an attitude of thinking about the society, low moderate relationship aspects (Cihangiroğlu, 2014).
Considering all the characteristics of individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder, it is estimated that there may be common characteristics they have experienced during their childhood, and different opinions have been mentioned on this issue (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
The similarity of parental behavior patterns that individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder are exposed to in childhood are shown as an example in the book Mental Health and Disorders written by Orhan Öztürk and Aylin Uluşahin. In addition, as a result of the parents’ behavior of exalting all the characteristics of the child in a way that is more than normal in their childhood, their negative aspects of the child are not talked about and they have an attitude that cannot be criticized, it is seen that the sense of self has a role to be enlarged (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
When individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder feel an attack against their selves, the possibility of a pathological level of Narcissism increases (Eldogan,2016).
It is possible to state the diagnostic criteria listed in the DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria Reference Manual for individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder as given below.
As stated in the DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria Reference Manual, a person must have at least five or more of the following items in order to be diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
People with this disorder praise themselves too much. They describe the success and abilities they have had throughout their lives in extreme detail, and they tend to describe it much more than they normally do, and they want to know that they are seen as superior by the people around them (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
They have a desire to have fame, beauty, success and intelligence that will not end throughout their lives, as well as to receive love (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
The individual believes that he/she has rare features, that he/she is a very valuable and important individual and believes in these thoughts that he/she should only meet with people who are similar to him/herself and that he/she should be in social environments where there are people he/she thinks very similar to himself/herself and that he/she can communicate with only those individuals as he/she wants (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
He always wants to see that he is greatly admired and honored by everyone (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
When it comes to situations such as being favored or prioritized, he is not bothered by this situation and moreover, he thinks that he deserves it.
He takes advantage of the social and financial opportunities of the people around him, and at the same time does not feel uncomfortable using people for the sake of his goals and the purpose he wants to achieve (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
He is insufficient to be empathetic with his social environment and family. They cannot understand other people’s situations, basic needs, and emotions (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
They often look badly at the possessions, virtues, and characteristics of other individuals in their daily life, and they envy them, and they are jealous of those individuals because of their rank, rank, or characteristics they have (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Because he has such thoughts about other people and at the same time sees himself as superior, he may think that other people are jealous of him (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
He does not see the people around him as people who deserve to be respected. He often exhibits self-deprecating attitudes and arrogant behaviors towards the people around him (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
In the DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria Reference Manual, diagnoses of Narcissistic Personality Disorder can be confused with other disorders. In order to avoid this confusion, the evaluation of the person should be done carefully.
Borderline Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder
To make a comparison, the psychological mechanisms and identity perceptions found in Borderline Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorders are very similar (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016). Apart from these features, the inability to empathize is the main factor that causes Borderline Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder to be seen as similar disorders.
In both personality disorders, they can use and manipulate the individuals around them or with whom they are in social relations to a certain level for their own purposes or wishes, and it is seen as their common feature that they are not disturbed by this (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
One of the common features of Borderline Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder is that they show extreme nervous reactions. It is evident that in both personality disorders, it is in the identity structure that can be damaged quickly and is broken immediately (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).
Particular attention should be paid to the distinction between Borderline Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder, where the person exhibits the consequences of a behavior pattern without attempting to calculate it. While this situation is not seen in Narcissistic Personality Disorder, it is possible to see this situation in Borderline Personality Disorder (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016), (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).