The most important function of the nail is the protection function. Nail problems are quite common. Changes in nails are seen in diseases such as psoriasis and eczema, after trauma, as a side effect of drugs and in some skin diseases. Although the most common cause of nail disorders is fungal infection, bacterial infections can also cause nail disorders.
Nail disorders in systemic diseases
- Beau lines (Horizontal Corrugation): It is the horizontal lump in the nail bed that is usually seen after trauma. It is seen after severe nutritional disorders, high fever and taking some medications. Especially in chronic eczema, a horizontal line may occur on the nail. The cessation of growth in the nail bed for a while causes this groove. This groove is noticed one month after the causative event and regresses spontaneously as the nail grows longer.
- Onycholysis (Separation of the nail from its bed): It is the separation of the tip of the nail from the nail bed. Often, diseases such as goiter, psoriasis, eczema, and lichen can cause this condition, such as antibiotics such as tetracycline. Sometimes this condition can be permanent.
- Onychorexia (Longitudinal ridge and groove in the nail): This is seen in the elderly, rheumatism, vascular diseases and skin disease called lichen. Usually this condition is permanent.
- Koilonychia (Spoon nail): The spoon shape of the nail is most commonly seen in anemia due to iron deficiency. It can also be seen normally in children. It improves with treatment or with age.
- Leukonychia (White spots on nails):White spots on the nails can be seen in diseases such as kidney diseases and cirrhosis, as well as spontaneously.
- Pitting (Thimble nail): It is the condition of seeing tiny pits on the nails. It can be seen in psoriasis, ringworm and eczema. Even if these diseases are treated, pits may remain on the nails.
- Onychomycosis (Nail Fungus): It is a very common disease. It is especially common in those with heat, humidity, trauma, diabetes and athlete’s foot. The nail is deformed, thickened, yellow-brown in color, and sometimes pain may occur.
- Paronychia (Dolama): It is an infection that appears in the form of pain, swelling and redness in the nail fold. In the advanced stage, pus develops in this part. It is a bacterial infection caused by trauma and is treated with antibiotics. Chronic cases, on the other hand, develop due to allergic and irritating eczema rather than microbial, and the cuticle has disappeared. These people have a habit of cutting their cuticles or they are used to a job where their hands are constantly in contact with water. Often secondary fungal infection is also added. In the treatment, first of all, water contact should be prevented.
- Nail disorders due to drugs: Many medications can cause nail disorder. Brown and black discoloration, leukonychia, bleeding areas, Beau’s lines, melanonychia, thickening, thimble nail, blue-gray, yellow, purple discoloration, paronychia, pyogenic gronuloma, brittle nails, onycholysis are nail changes that can develop with the intake of various drugs. Nail disorders other than pyogenic gronuloma regress with cutting.
- In addition, in many genetic diseases, various disorders can be seen in the nails.