In this study, the concept of multiple intelligences and its types are discussed. In addition, multiple intelligences and learning methods in children are also mentioned. While intelligence was evaluated on a single criterion (IQ), it was later evaluated on different types of intelligence.
Although the definition of intelligence is made in different ways, one of the most widely accepted definitions is that an individual has the skills to solve problems, use logic, and think analytically and critically. As I mentioned in the study, many scientists stated the following; Intelligence can show differences in different age groups as well as in different areas. For example; Adolescence is a natural period in which physical, emotional and social changes are experienced. In this period, mental resilience such as adapting to life, coping with stress, struggling against life is directly related to high emotional intelligence.
Defense of Multiple Intelligence Theory; Cognitive science, developmental psychology, and also neuroscience, making use of individuals’ intelligence levels are formed by independent power or abilities. In fact, the increase in intelligence diversity to eight was the result of a study by Howard Gardner in 1997.
Keywords: Intelligence, multiple intelligences, learning, child
In this study, the concept of multiple intelligence and its types are discussed and multiple intelligence and learning methods are also discussed for children. While intelligence has been first evaluated on a single criterion (IQ), it has been evaluated over different types of intelligence later.
Although the definition of intelligence is made in different ways, one of the most accepted definitions is that the individual has the skills of problem solving, using logic, analytical and critical thinking skills. As we mentioned in the study, many scientists have stated; Intelligence can show differences in different age groups as well as in different areas of intelligence. For example; The period of adolescence is a natural period in which physical, emotional and social changes are experienced. In this period there is a direct relationship with the high level of emotional intelligence, the ability to adapt to life and to cope with stress and to fight against life.
Defense of the Multiple Intelligence Theory; Using cognitive science, developmental psychology and neuroscience, each individual’s intelligence level is formed by independent powers or abilities and In fact, the emergence of the diversity of intelligence was the result of a study by Howard Gardner in 1997.
Key Words: Intelligence, multiple intelligence, learning, child.
This theory, which was put forward to move the limits of learning and teaching methods determined by the traditions of society from written methods to versatility and to develop skills, made the definition of intelligence reconsider. This theory aims to make various intelligences active and effective rather than internalizing and passive individuals. Howard Gardner, one of the founders of the theory, conducted research on how students’ intelligence develops during the education process, and which areas they provide orientation to, and he determined that there are eight different types of intelligence. . The development of these types of intelligence translates into our potential. It integrates and builds our way of thinking and continues by preserving reality. (Gardner and Hatch, 1989, p.4). This theory, Gardner found, always works together, but the ways of working are different. (Demiray, 2010, p.2). This study has the potential to make a great contribution to the learning in which we are competent. (Altan, 1999, p.108).
Educator Alfred Binet has found the IQ test (IntelegenceQuotient) to give an idea of a child’s intelligence level. IQ, known as traditional intelligence, only provides the measurement of language and mathematical intelligence, and measurements are made by applying numerical intelligence tests; makes classifications of people according to their level. (Yilmaz and Fer, 2003, p.235). On the other hand, according to Lazear, since children’s intelligence is at the developmental level, we can use this process to develop programs on intelligence. (Bumen, 2003, p.66).
According to the Multiple Intelligence theory, traditional learning (IQ) and teaching methods are seen as methods that push the student to be a passive individual and lead to rote learning. This method accepts that the intelligence is unchangeable and unmovable. (Tuğrul and Duran, 2003, p.225). The new definition of “intelligence” has led to profound changes in the field of education. Because this theory; It aimed to take into account not only the scores of children and students from the tests, but also their abilities in different fields. However, education has been carried out for years to develop “verbal-numerical intelligence” (Karagüven, 2018, p.3).
Intelligence is associated with high mental resilience and emotional intelligence, such as adapting to life during adolescence, coping with stress, and struggling against life. (Ergun 2016). As our cognitive capacity is too broad, it has emerged according to research that combines most symbol systems with our cultural skills. (Talu, 1999, p.165).
Looking at adults as well, some adult learning theories have starting points for understanding: (a) knowledge to discern how adult learners build, (b) using learning as a guide to help others (c) classroom experience by developing and applying strategies to transform . (Wilson, 2018, p.128).
Gardner says much of the attention of culture and schools is focused on linguistic and mathematical intelligence. Gardner says we should pay equal attention to individuals who show gifts in other intelligences: artists, architects, naturalists, designers, dancers, therapists, and those who enrich the world we live in. (Armstrong, 2018, p.6). It is foreseen that each person needs to learn in different styles and styles, and appropriate learning techniques should be offered for this. (Köksal, 2006, p.474). These types of intelligence are described below.
1.1 Linguistic Intelligence
Linguistic competence is in fact an intellectual competence that appears to be the most widely and most democratically shared among the human species. Teaching and learning takes place through language. Language not only initiates developments in a new scientific sense, but also offers us important metaphors in explaining it. Language is its potential to explain its actions and is at the very top of human intelligences. To the extent that language is seen as a visual tool, it is closer to the field of spatial intelligence (Gardner, 2010).
1.2 Mathematical Intelligence
The ability to solve mathematical questions, deal with logical concepts, make comparisons and classifications, is the characteristic of the field of “logic-mathematical intelligence” (Sivrikaya, 2010, p.124). Scientific thinking includes the ability to evaluate data, be objective, make judgments, and form hypotheses. (Güleryüz, 2008, p.158).
1.3 Spatial Intelligence
spatial intelligence; It is the ability to think with pictures, images, shapes, and to perceive three-dimensional objects (Sivrikaya, 2010, p.125). It is very important to make perception, change and transformations at the core of spatial intelligence. (Gardner, 2010).
1.4 Musical Intelligence
The ability to understand and present music, to use music as a tool, to be sensitive to rhythms and melodies is “musical intelligence” (Güleryüz, 2008, p. 158). Musical intelligence is the individual’s sensitivity to the rhythm, loudness and melody of the voice (Karagüven, 2018, p.6). From a neurological point of view, it is stated that musical intelligence is the first to develop among intelligence types. It is said that the effect of music, sound, vibration and rhythm is stronger than any other type of intelligence. (Basaran, 2004, p.10).
1.5 Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
Expressing human beings with gestures, mimics and movements and establishing coordination in the brain and body is the field of “bodily-kinesthetic” intelligence (Sivrikaya, 2010, p.125). These individuals are people who can easily practice sportive movements and regular rhythmic games (Güleryüz, 2008, p.158). They are also known as individuals with features such as using the body effectively, dancing and being sensitive to coordinating the body, and establishing mind and body connections. (Yilmaz and Fer, 2003, p.236).
1.6 Social Intelligence
Social intelligence; division of labor, verbal and nonverbal communication, forming groups, trying to understand people’s feelings, thoughts and behaviors, trying to interpret and trying to persuade people (Sivrikaya, 2010, p.125). Another feature of this intelligence is that they are children who are attentive to the mental variability of the people around them and are sensitive to these mental states. (Basaran, 2004, p.11).
1.7 Intrusive Intelligence
Being able to evaluate one’s emotional response level, thinking process, self-assessment and create some goals about himself is the theory of “self-directed intelligence” (Sivrikaya, 2010, p.125). A sense of independence is the ability to understand one’s own feelings or reactions and to express them to others. (Yilmaz and Fer, 2003, p.237).
1.8 Natural Intelligence
The last intelligence area added later is called “natural intelligence”. People with this intelligence area have interests such as natural resources, nature, environmental cleaning, protecting plants and animals (Güleryüz, 2008, p.158). It is stated that this type of intelligence is directly related to perceiving, liking and understanding the surrounding natural world (Başaran, 2004, p.12).
CONCLUSION and RECOMMENDATIONS
The traditional education system is based on the concept of verbal and numerical intelligence, other areas of intelligence are ignored, and it limits the development of mind with education based on one-way intelligence. In addition, as a measure of intelligence, paper and pencil tests such as IQ tests and exam scores are discussed. In this case, negative adjectives can be attributed to these students by ignoring the other abilities of students who are not developed in verbal and numerical fields. However, it should be known that students have other abilities that they can develop. It has been thought that each child can learn in different ways in learning in the same or similar ways, that the student will find himself and his limit only in this way, and that it can contribute to the creation of a peaceful and healthy environment. Most of the other students will feel lacking if we put forward the intelligence of only standard people where there is only one qualification.
The field of human intelligence is very wide, and when it is desired to enter this field of intelligence, a more comprehensive and universal competence than we accept should be included in the framework. Considering the differences of individuals, I think that it would be right to determine the area of competence and intelligence investment and to draw up a training program accordingly.
The contribution of the theory of multiple intelligences in schools is that it has shown different teaching ways to teachers. In our country, teachers have difficulties in both material and planning. With this theory, it is aimed for teachers to discover talents and bring them to a good level. In this way, students will realize their talents and will adjust their career choices accordingly.