Motor Speech Disorder

APRAXIA
Speech apraxia is a motor speech disorder that can occur without problems with the brain or muscles used in speech production. The brain has difficulty in using the structures (tongue, lips) used in speech in a smooth and coordinated way. There are situations such as the use of missing or limited speech sounds, the inability to combine the used sounds, the use of simple sounds instead of difficult sounds, and the simplification of words. Apraxia can also affect other organs of the body (lower and upper extremities). The person has difficulty in doing daily activities and the quality of life is adversely affected.

dysarthria

As a result of spasticity, flaccidity, coordination disorder, paralysis in the muscles (tongue, lip) controlling the speech mechanism due to damage to the nervous system before, during or after birth, the respiratory, vocalization, resonance, pronunciation and prosodic features of speech are affected, thus intelligibility. It is a motor speech disorder in which its features are limited.

How is dysarthria evaluated?

The purpose of the evaluation is screening and detection, diagnosis, and planning the intervention method. Evaluation is based on the determination of damaged structures and their functions by imaging methods, direct observation of the movements and functions of speech production structures with devices, and perceptual evaluation of speech production. Computerized sound analysis systems (CSL), video and audio recording devices are used to evaluate the acoustic properties of speech in order to make more objective judgments.

What is apraxia of speech (Verbal Apraxia)?

It is a motor disorder related to the programming of speech in adulthood and childhood. The adult form occurs after normal language and speech development. Childhood apraxic speech occurs as a result of structural brain damage. It is also known as sensorimotor speech disorder. It is the central motor planning disorder necessary to produce words and to provide voluntary muscle movements.

 

What are the characteristics of apraxic speech?

Pronunciation problems are common. In addition, phonation coordination, frequency and/or emphasis are effective. The patient is aware of his inadequacy, as the word length increases, the problem increases. Pronunciation disorders are not consistent; variations in repetitions, extensions, or word changes are seen. Consonants are more difficult to pronounce than vowels, initial consonants are more difficult than final consonants. Particularly in automatic and frequently used words, parts of speech that are perfectly pronounced are frequently encountered.

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