In cases of male infertility, where the sperm cells cannot reach the female egg or exceed the egg membrane for any reason, a new in vitro fertilization method, the microinjection technique, is used.
Before the emergence of this technique, the effectiveness of drug treatments and varicocele surgeries used in severe male infertility cases has never been clearly demonstrated. Today, experts state that these treatments have no place in cases characterized as severe male infertility and should no longer be used. The microinjection technique applied in these cases clearly changed the fate of these men. For the first time, these conditions are treated at the cellular level. A single sperm cell is injected into the egg obtained from the woman with the help of a needle finer than a hair, under the microscope, and fertilization is ensured.
This technique mainly addresses three different categories of disorders. These are cases where the sperm count or motility is lacking, or the sperm shapes (morphology) are defective. Fertilization rate is not related to sperm rate in microinjection applications. Even in cases where there are a few sperm cells in the semen, the fertilization rate does not change (70 – 80%). With this technique, pregnancy can be achieved even with a few sperm cells. In cases where the motility of the sperm cells is insufficient, this technique can provide a solution to the difficulty of the sperms in crossing the egg membrane. It has been known for many years that there is no fertilization or that the fertilization rate is very low, even in in vitro fertilization practices performed in such cases where the sperm shape is a cause of infertility. In microinjection technique applications, sperm shapes do not have a negative effect on fertilization and pregnancy rates. The egg is fixed by suction with the help of a tube (pipette). Sperm are injected into the egg with a fine glass needle. Two days later, the fertilized egg (embryo) is placed in the uterus.