Laparoscopy is the observation of the abdominal cavity by entering the navel with a camera and the treatment of diseases by using special laparoscopic instruments when necessary. Laparoscopy was used only in the diagnosis of gynecological diseases 20 years ago. In the light of the discovery of new methods and technological developments over time, 90% of the cases that require surgery, including gynecological cancers, can be performed with the laparoscopy technique.
Laparoscopy Application Areas
Laparoscopy application areas can be examined in two parts as Diagnostic and Operative Laparoscopy. Diagnostic Laparoscopy is usually performed to investigate the cause of infertility and chronic pelvic pain in infertile patients. Operative Laparoscopy is ovarian cysts, ovarian or cyst torsion (rotation of the ovary), endometriosis, fibroid removal, removal of the uterus, ectopic pregnancy, if there is fluid accumulation in the tubes (hydrosalpinx) in IVF patients, the tubes are tied and opened. It is applied in intra-abdominal adhesions, polycystic ovary syndrome, urinary incontinence, uterine and urinary bladder prolapse and cancer surgeries. Having previous open or closed surgery is not an obstacle for laparoscopy.
How is Laparoscopy Applied?
The patient is prepared in a supine position under general anesthesia. A 1 cm incision is made in the belly button. The abdominal cavity is entered through this incision with a special needle (Veres needle), and the abdominal cavity is inflated with approximately 3lt of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. Then, the camera (Telescope, Laparoscope) is entered through the belly button and the image inside the abdomen is displayed on the screen (monitor) opposite the surgeon. Depending on the technique of the surgery, it may be necessary to make 2-3 incisions of 0.5 cm in size from the groin and midline through which the laparoscopic instruments will enter. These small incisions are operated using special laparoscopic surgical instruments. At the end of the surgery, the gas in the abdomen is discharged and small incisions are closed.