Language and Speaking Skills

CHILDREN AGED 6-8

-Learns about 20 words a day

-Vocabulary develops rapidly

-Word definitions reflecting the task and appearance are concrete

– Narration is more organized, detailed and explanatory

CHILDREN AGED 9-11

-Thinks about words, uses them more regularly, defines synonyms and categorical relationships

-Understands double meanings of words, understanding of metaphor and humor shows this

-Continues to learn complex grammar rules such as inverted sentence structures

-Continues to master communication strategies

-Languages ​​become longer and orderly, detailed and expressive

LOSS OF BROCA FIELD CAUSES APHASIA

Sometimes a person may decide what they want to say, but the vocal systems can only make certain sounds and not the words they intended.

This condition, called motor aphasia, occurs in 95 percent of people as a result of damage to the brocha speech area located in the left hemisphere prefrontal and premotor face regions of the cerebral cortex.

ARTICULATION (FLUENCE)

Finally, there is the articulation action, which we consider as the complementary element of speech. ARTICULSION means the muscle movements responsible for the rapid changes in the intonation, timing and intensity of the successive sounds of the mouth, tongue, larynx, vocal cords, and other speech devices. The facial and laryngeal portions of the motor cortex of these muscles govern the cerebellum basal ganglia and the sensory cortex together help regulate the intensity and sequence of muscle contraction

APRAXIA AND THE APRAXIA OF CHILDHOOD SPEECH

Apraxia is a motor speech disorder characterized by difficulty in ordering syllables and words correctly.

Messages are degraded until they reach the articulatory organ in the brain.

Although the person does not have any weakness in the muscles he uses in speech, he cannot move his tongue and lips to the right place in order to say the sounds correctly. Also, the severity of APRAXIA depends on the nature of the brain damage. Apraxia may be associated with dysarthria and aphasia.

If apraxia occurs in childhood, then it is defined as childhood apraxia.

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT STEPS

1 YEAR

-Reacts to name

-Makes sounds similar to speech sounds

-Uses gestures in communication, such as nodding and pointing fingers

-understands simple commands (like ebb and flow)

-uses a few simple words, even if not fully understood

-steps intonation as if speaking

1-2 AGES

-Can bring desired object from other room

-Brings objective to show parents

– Plays pretend games, such as cooking

-Starts to say a new word every week

-Begins to use words using two words

-Can ask questions

2-3 AGES

-50-100 Uses the word in communication

– Can make sentences using three words

– can follow instructions (like open the window 9)

-I uses pronouns like you

– must be highly agreeable by relatives

-says the names of body parts

-Can maintain a short chat

can use some suffixes (such as negative, plural)

3-4 AGES

– Can use an average of 800-1500 words in communication

– Can tell simple stories

– Makes sentences of 4-5 words

-Knows and tells his surname and the district he lives in

DO YOU PAY ATTENTION TO THE NUMBER OF WORDS YOUR CHILDREN USE?

2-6 WORDS AT 12 MONTHS

10 WORDS AT 15.MONTH

19. 50 WORDS MONTHLY

200-300 WORDS AT 24 MONTH

1000 WORDS PER 36 MONTHS

AUTISM

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

-Social interaction issues

-Communication problems

-Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a neurodevelopmental difference manifested by interests and sensory sensitivities.

Children with autism have difficulty communicating and interacting with other people, limited interests, and repetitive behaviors and symptoms that impair a person’s ability to function properly in school, work, and other areas of life.

BABIES WITH HEALTH PROBLEMS AND A CREATIVE MOTHER

SET UP A VERY GOOD EXAMPLE, LIKE A BABY TO A CHILD WITH HEALTH PROBLEMS

WORKING AREAS OF LANGUAGE AND SPEECH THERAPY

1-Speech sound disorders

– Articulation disorder

-Phonological disorder

– Speech voice apraxia

2-Motor speech disorders

-Apraxia

-Dysarthria

3- Fluency disorders

-Stuttering

-Fast distorted speech (tachemia)

4 – delayed language speaking

5 – Specific language disorder

6- Acquired language disorders

-aphasia

-parkinson

-TBI

-dementia, alzheimer’s

7-voice disorders

-voice cord paralysis

-mutational falsettao

-voice part

-nodule, polyp

8-Resonance disorders

– Cleft lip and palate

9-Swallowing disorders

10-Language disorders due to a second disability

-mental/auditory/visual disability

-CP,Autism

11-Autism spectrum disorder

-Dyslexia

-Dysgraphia

0-3 MONTHS Period

Receiver Language

– Be startled by loud noises

-Silence when spoken to

-Accelerates or slows sucking behavior when heard a sound

He is aware of his mother’s voice and is silent when he hears his mother’s voice while crying

Expressive Language

-Makes some sounds that he is enjoying

-Networks to express various needs

-She smiles when she sees her family

Speech

-uses mostly vowel sounds

They tend to use the lip sounds p and b

4-6 Months Period

Recipient Language

-Follows the source of sounds with his eyes

-Notices changes in her mother’s voice

-Music and toys that make sounds attract his attention

Expressive Language

-Starts babbling some speech-like sounds

– He chuckles and laughs

– Indicates that he is excited or disliked

– He cries when spending time with family members or alone

Speech

Babbling begins

7 MONTHS -1 AGE PERIOD

Recipient Language,

– He likes simple games

-Turns and looks towards the sound

-Listens to the conversations around him

-He senses events

-Imitates gestures and facial expressions

Expressive Language

-Makes short and long babblings

-Can attract the attention of others with words or non-crying sounds

May have several words close to 1 year old

– These words may not be clear enough

Speech

-Can make syllables

– Produces p,d,t,d sounds

1-2 AGE PERIOD

Recipient Language

-Can show several parts of the body when asked

-Performs simple instructions and answers questions

-Listens to simple nursery rhymes, fairy tales or songs

-Shows the said picture

Understands 50-100 words

Expressive Language

Says a few new words every month. Can use two words together

-Imitates sounds and vocabulary

-Uses pronouns

-Can convey thoughts by arranging single words

-Uses the vocabulary between 20-50 words

Speech

-One word mimics incomprehensible words

– May not use some sounds at the beginning and end of words

-Uses p,b,m,n,a,v,k,g sounds

2-3 AGE PERIOD

Recipient Language

– Understands the differences in the meanings of words

-Understands sequential instructions

-Listens to auditory stories for long periods of time

-Identifies the object used

-Listens to learn

-Uses a word for almost everything

-Uses two-to-three-word phrases

-Uses the name of the object he wants abundantly

– Vocabulary increases by 10 -20 words a month

-Uses sentences with negative meaning

Speech

-Uses p,b,m,n,v,h,r,y,k,g,t,d sounds

Comprehensibility at 24 months is between 50-75%

-36. speech intelligibility increased to 80-90% per month

3-4 AGE PERIOD

Recipient Language

– Understand the functions of objects,

-Simple, understands and answers questions

Understands who, where, how, why questions

-Hears when called from another room

Expressive Language

– Understands speech in people outside the family

-Speaks easily, no repetitions

Makes sentences of 4 or more words

-Describes what they do at home or at home

Speech

– Speech is completely understandable

– Produces s,z,sh,j,ç,c sounds

4-5 AGE PERIOD

Recipient Language

– Understands sequential events

-Answers the question of how

-Generally performs simple commands

-Listens to short stories and answers questions

– Understands and understands most of the narratives at home and at school

Expressive Language

-His voice is clear

-Uses detailed sentences

-Tells relevant stories

-Can communicate with adults and children

-Can continue to talk on a particular topic

SPEECH

-Speaks most voices correctly

– Produces l,r sounds. communicates easily with others

-Uses adult grammar and talks about details

WHAT IS MICROTIA?

Congenital formation of only a very small part of the earlobe or auricle is called Microtia.

BEING Bilingual OR Multilingual DOES NOT CAUSE LANGUAGE AND SPEAKING DISORDER OR REDUCTION

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AUDIO HYGIENE

-Pay attention to daily water consumption

-Don’t talk by shouting

– Avoid heavy oily and fizzy drinks

Consumption of menthol, mint gum and candy should be avoided, as menthol causes drying in the vocal cords.

-Smoking and alcohol consumption should be reduced if possible.

OBJECTIVE IN VOICE THERAPY

– Restoring normal sound

-Improving the sound profile

-Improving larynx functions

-Prevent future sound problems

– Eliminate disturbances during sound production

-To ensure that the case reaches its voice potential

WHEN SHOULD I CONSULT A LANGUAGE AND SPEECH THERAPIST?

-If your child is unable to communicate with you and has difficulty

– Doesn’t have enough eye contact and doesn’t respond to your name

-18 months, uses less than 20 words

-24 months old but can’t double combination

-3 years old still mark your requests and if he wants in one word

-4 years old if speech intelligibility is low

-Has problems in social communication and playing games

-Mistakes sounds when speaking, reading or writing

– Does not give appropriate answers to questions

-Has difficulty in reading, writing and understanding what is read

-If the breech is stifled frequently

SPEAKING VOICE DISORDERS (KSD)

-Not being able to speak well

-order letters while speaking

– inability to connect letters while speaking

– people outside of his family do not understand

-R can’t say

-If he says a deed instead of a door

-5 years old and not able to speak clearly

TYPES OF DYSLEXIA

-Phonological Dyslexia

– Superficial dyslexia

-Visual Dyslexia

-Developmental Dystexia

-Primary Dyslexia

– Acquired Dyslexia

SUGGESTIONS TO FAMILY FOR OUR CHILDREN TO TALK

-Watch your child and describe what your child sees

-Don’t start doing it right away before the child asks for it

– Offer your child options

-Make animations as you speak

– When you ask your child a question, give him time to answer, do not rush

-Make sense that what your child says is important to you

– Encourage communication

-Give less toys than necessary

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