Juvenile delinquency and its prevention

CHILD DENIED, with its simplest definition, refers to all kinds of crimes faced by our children under the age of 18. We can categorize juvenile delinquency as follows;

1- Child Committed to Crime:They are children who are prone to commit crimes and are in danger of committing crimes due to their social environment, parental attitudes and personal characteristics.
2- Criminal Child:They are children who commit acts considered as a crime by law and fall within the scope of the criminal provisions of the law.
3- Juvenile Delinquency:It is the transformation of anti-social tendencies in a child into a situation that requires legal action.

Without mentioning some important points in this regard, it would be very difficult for us to understand this important problem, which has become widespread in our society in recent years. According to Article 31-(1) of the Turkish Penal Code, children who have not completed the age of 12 at the time of the crime are not criminally liable, and only security measures specific to them can be applied to these children. Another remarkable point is mentioned in the second paragraph of Article 31 of the Turkish Penal Code; Here too, if the child has completed the age of 12 but has not attained the age of 15 at the time of the act, if he cannot perceive the legal meaning and consequences of the act he has committed or if his ability to direct his behavior is not sufficiently developed, no criminal prosecution is made against these children, and security measures specific to them are applied for these children.


TYPES OF CHILD DENIED

1- Guilt Due to Intellectual Retardation or Developmental Retardation: These children, who have limited physical, social and mental development, mostly come from poor families with low socio-economic status. Such children may commit crimes as a result of both their weaknesses and external pressures.
2- Guilt Due to Lack of Social Education and Culture: The environment supports the development of the child both mentally and physically. If the environment in which the child lives cannot meet his social, educational and basic needs, the child may turn to crime.
3- Guilt Due to Adolescence:Reasons such as rapid physical and mental changes in this age, wrong education and insufficient love extending back to childhood can lead the adolescent to commit crime.
4- Guilt Caused by the Broken Family Order: The child adopts and learns the bad social behavior patterns of the family he lives with and the faulty aspects of his family and environment. Therefore, it can turn to crime.
5- Guilt Caused by Organic Conditions:Failure to control behavior in response to purely organic conditions such as encephalitis can indirectly constitute guilt, Sara said.
6- Guilt Caused by Poverty:Children who have spent most of their lives in poverty and who want to get out of this situation quickly and easily may turn to crime.
7- Guilt Caused by Unconscious Behaviors (Neuratic Crime):It is the commission of a crime as a result of unconscious anti-social behaviors due to neurotic personality disorder.
8- Psychopathic Guilt:People in this group, including anti-social people, morally corrupt, corrupt people, kleptomaniacs, and homosexuals, can commit crimes.

REASONS FOR PUSHED TO CRIMIN

As a result of my experience in the field I work, I can state that; When we talk to our delinquent children, we find that most of them are children from broken families (the absence of a mother or father, or both, as a result of divorce or death).

Juvenile delinquency has increased in proportion to industrialization. As a result of industrialization, rapid and irregular urbanization, unemployment, inequality in income distribution and shaking of traditions occur.

These factors cause a tendency towards crime in families and individuals. Rural to urban migration has a negative impact on children.

Human relations and value judgments in the village and the city are different. The skills, knowledge and experiences required by these two settlements are incompatible. It is difficult for the village child who comes to the city to overcome the difficulties of the city and overcome the obstacles.

In adolescence, individuals show more behaviors that are criminalized by the law. Because this period is the transition period from childhood to adulthood, where biological, psychological, mental and social development and maturation takes place. Adolescence is an irregular, unstable and difficult period for children to live. Adolescents are on the verge of rapid physical change and development. This rapid change and development constitutes an important source of anxiety. The youth is constantly searching for himself and his place. The youth, who is trying to find his place, seeks solutions to the problems of identification, responsibility and autonomy.

The solution differs according to the characteristics of the segment in which the young person lives and the characteristics of the individual with whom he/she identifies. Identification means that the individual watches the feelings, thoughts and behaviors of a member of the group he is in, imitates him, and if the personality structure is broken, this bad behavior pattern is reflected on the young person. Adults should be guided by children and young people so that guilt does not occur as a result.

The family environment, which gives the individual the social value judgments and gives him the opportunity for the first social experience, is of great importance in the development process. First of all, the negative attitudes of families towards their children determine the personality structure that the child will form. For example ; Excessive tolerance and indulgence make the child selfish; Overprotection makes the child dependent on others, insecure; The rejected, unwanted child may be an irritable, hostile to the weak and minor; The child who is under pressure may have a shy, hypersensitive, and under the influence of others.

The inconsistency of the family’s understanding of discipline, the use of punishment, an excessively harsh and authoritarian attitude, an intolerant and pressured discipline application, and an over-tolerant or reckless upbringing style that leaves the child completely in line with his/her impulses and wishes is wrong and harmful. In order for the child to develop a healthy mental and social development, the family must have a consistent discipline and a certain amount of authority and control.

Broken family structure is also one of the important factors in juvenile delinquency. In cases where there are children from broken or broken families and from families where there is incompatibility, constant husband-wife quarrels, whose fathers drink alcohol or whose father is unemployed, and there are criminals in the family, the child may turn to crime. Because guilt is a learned behavior. Maternal deprivation or an irregular mother-child relationship can lead to juvenile delinquency. In infancy, both physical and mental developmental retardation is seen in mossy children in terms of mother. When children are younger, they learn to behave and behave as their mother wants, in order not to lose their mother’s love and attention. In other words, the basis of learning social behaviors is the love and attachment to the mother. If this love and attachment is not developed, the child cannot learn social behaviors. The child, who is dependent on the mother at the beginning, especially needs a protective and watchful father for his personality development. The father is the representative of authority and social values. The absence of a father can create a vacuum of authority or a lack of exemplary personality. As a result of my experience in the field I work, I can state that; We find that the vast majority of our delinquent children are the children of broken families (the absence of a mother or father, or both, as a result of divorce or death).

PREVENTION OF CHILD DENIED
In the first childhood years, it is necessary to be consistent with the child, not to interfere with his harmless behavior, to be careful not to restrict the movement area too much, but to make him feel that some rules must be followed.

The child imitates many behaviors of his parents. It is helpful not to act aggressively in the presence of children, not to lie, and to encourage the child not to lie.

Play has an important place in socialization. Playing teaches the child cooperation, the rules necessary for collective life.
For this reason, children should be allowed to play enough, but the child should be helped in the selection of playmates.
· All kinds of financial punishment, especially beating should be avoided. Feelings of hostility develop in the child who is beaten.
· Parents should especially be consistent in the discipline method they will apply. In addition to the wrongness of applying an overly harsh and authoritarian, intolerant and pressured discipline, a careless upbringing is also wrong.
· The compulsory basic needs of the child should be met at a minimum level, sufficient pocket money should be given to the child, and necessary tools and equipment should be purchased.
· If parents manage to establish a friendly dialogue with their children during childhood, this dialogue continues in adolescence and problems in adolescence can be solved more easily. For this reason, families should first know their children, know their interests and abilities, prepare opportunities for them to become self-sufficient, and especially deal with their children’s problems with the help of friendly dialogue.
· Parents should guide the child in making use of his spare time, and help the child in choosing the books to read and movies to watch. If the child cannot be prevented from watching movies and TV shows that trigger aggressive reactions, it may be helpful for parents to watch such programs with the child and then have a short conversation about the good and bad aspects of the program.
· The sexual information that the child asks at any age should be given in an appropriate language, and male-female friendships should be encouraged in a controlled manner.
Above all, children and young people should be loved enough and their personalities should be respected.


TEACHER RECOMMENDATIONS

· The socialization task of the school is usually carried out in the classroom. The role of the teacher is great in terms of the value judgments and attitudes that the student will adopt. The teacher is a good guide for the student’s self-development in the group.
· The teacher should set a model in the classroom with his confidentiality as well as his fairness.
· While ensuring integrity in the classroom, the teacher should also establish a respect based on love. Instead of emphasizing the shortcomings and inadequacies of the student, he should make his success a starting point for himself, take care not to make comparisons in the classroom and not to use insulting words.
· The teacher should exhibit the negative aspects of cultural patterns such as blood feuds and bride price, while ensuring the adoption of cultural patterns that benefit the society.
· The teacher should be a loving, understanding, broad-minded, free-thinking person who follows the intellectual and environmental activities as the child’s identification model.
· The teacher should be an individual who knows the characteristics and problems of adolescence and can deal with the special problems of the adolescent.
· In cases where the child commits a crime (such as stealing, lying, etc.), he should be talked to as much as possible, should be told that what he did was wrong, and should not be exposed to others. In addition, the main reason for the child’s crime should be revealed. If the causes are not eliminated, the behavior becomes a habit. Knowing and eliminating the causes facilitates the solution.

If a child is constantly criticized,
He learns to condemn and shame.

If a child has grown up in a hostile environment,
He learns to fight.

If a child is mocked and humiliated,
He learns to be bored and ashamed.

If a child is constantly trained in shame,
He learns to blame himself.

If a child is brought up with tolerance,
He learns to be patient.

If a child is supported and encouraged,
He learns to be self-confident.

If a child is praised and admired,
He learns to appreciate.

If a child is raised with respect for his rights,
He learns to be fair.

If a child is brought up in an environment of trust,
He learns to have faith.

If a child is accepted and approved,
He learns to love himself.

If a child has seen friendship and companionship in the family,
He learns to be happy.

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