In vitro fertilization treatment is performed in two ways: classical in vitro fertilization and microinjection. Eggs and sperm are brought together in a suitable environment. The classical in vitro fertilization method is used to create the best quality embryo by fertilizing the egg by the sperms that have undergone medical treatment.
In the microinjection method, the strongest, highest quality sperm cell is injected directly into the egg with a microscopic needle, and the fertilization of the egg is ensured.
When to Start IVF Treatment?
After the IVF decision is taken, the blood test and the number of developing follicles are determined on the 2nd or 3rd day of menstruation. Blood tests (fsh, lh, E2, prolactin and progesterone) are checked. Pre-treatment ultrasound examination It is necessary to check whether there is a disease that may prevent IVF treatment.
Treatment options to be applied later are more; It varies according to the age of the woman, blood test, ovarian capacity and other values.
The number of developing embryos and their quality depend on many factors. The cause of recurrent poor embryo quality is usually due to the eggs. Younger patients have a lower risk of chromosomal abnormalities in their eggs and have better pregnancy outcomes. Despite this, about 20-40% of their embryos have a chromosomal abnormality (aneuploidy).
Another problem is the quality of the sperm. It is known that the embryos developed as a result of the procedures performed with sperms that have serious morphological problems are of lesser quality.
As age progresses, the number and quality of eggs decreases and the risk of chromosomal disorders in embryos increases.
Especially when fertilization is made with immature (spermatid) sperm taken from testicles from azoospermic men, embryo quality is poor and the chance of pregnancy is low by transferring these embryos. For this reason, treatment and supplementation of people with such problems may improve the situation to some extent.
In couples with poor embryo quality, genetic examination should be performed for any chromosomal abnormality. Sometimes, chromosomal disorders (translocation) carried in a balanced way in women or men can be encountered.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis method should definitely be applied in a new IVF treatment when a genetic problem is detected in both men and women or if there is a high probability of chromosomal disorder in the embryos.
In cases where the woman is over 37 years old, there is a semen sample suggestive of DNA defect in the man’s sperm, and pregnancy cannot be achieved despite repeated IVF treatments, PGD method should be applied in a new IVF treatment, even if the peripheral karyotype test of both men and women is normal.