It doesn’t just happen with the regime.

Stating that obesity has inevitable effects on the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, skeletal system and endocrine system, Nutrition and Diet Specialist Müge Aksu emphasizes that obesity is directly effective in the formation of many diseases.

“It is effective in the formation of obesity, heart diseases, high cholesterol, high blood pressure. For example, obese women are four times more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than non-obese women. In addition, gall bladder diseases, stomach and reflux disorders, stomach hernia, gout disease, joint discomfort, menstrual irregularities, infertility can bring many ailments such as. Uterine and breast cancers in women, prostate, rectum and colon cancers in men are among the cancer types that are affected by obesity”, explains Aksu about the diseases caused by obesity.

Obesity is also a disease that directly affects a person’s quality of life. For example, it can also cause sleep apnea, a sleep disorder that prevents adequate breathing.

Body fat distribution is an important factor in the formation of type 2 diabetes. The risk of developing diabetes increases with the increase in body fat percentage. Obesity has a very high effect of about 75 percent in the formation of diabetes. Because both diseases are based on malnutrition. Type 2 diabetes is seen in 80% of obese individuals.

WHO IS CONSIDERED OBSE?

Body mass index is the leading obesity diagnostic criteria. Body mass index is a value obtained by dividing the body weight by the square of the height. If this value is over 30, the person is considered obese regardless of age or gender. In men, waist circumference above 94 cm is considered risky and above 102 cm is considered obese. In women, on the other hand, over 80 cm is considered a risky group, while over 88 cm is considered obese. Another criterion is the waist to hip ratio. When waist measurement is divided by hip measurement, it is considered as 0.95 for men and 0.8 for women.

Dietitian Müge Aksu adds that although genetic factors are the first to come to mind in the formation of obesity, environmental and social factors mostly reveal and increase the formation. Saying that today, more than 25 genes that have a weight-increasing effect or that affect weight have been identified, Aksu also emphasizes that genetic factors are still the number one cause of obesity, although it is not the only reason.

WHY DOES OBESITY OCCUR?

Individual and social factors such as occupation, education, social position and environment are some of the important side factors. Lifestyles such as urbanization and modernization create individuals who do not have time to cook at home and who turn to practical but high-energy foods. Behavioral factors such as alcohol consumption, smoking cessation or lack of physical activity also have effects on obesity. The main reason why we move less is the fact that the tools we frequently use in our daily lives, such as automobiles, washing machines, dishwashers or televisions, are mechanical. When we are not active during the day, our body’s working speed decreases. When you consume extra high-energy foods, obesity is inevitable for individuals.

Dietitian Müge Aksu draws attention to the recent increase in the rate of obesity in children, emphasizing that children also invite obesity because of similar behaviors. “The number of children who are accustomed to a fast food diet and spend hours in front of the TV and computer is so high. Television commercials are also influential. Because the number of chocolate and sugary food advertisements is quite high. This type of food is much more easily accessible to today’s children,” Aksu says, adding that eating ready-made foods with high fat, sugar and energy levels is an important factor in the formation of obesity. For example, instant soups, chocolate, candies, fast food-style foods, fries and roasts are very harmful foods. Salami, soudjouk, sausage and pastrami have a very high fat content. Mayonnaise, which is consumed a lot by children, is a full fat store. Carbonated drinks such as cola, on the other hand, are in the group of drinks called empty calories and only increase the amount of energy we receive daily.

BEHAVIORAL TREATMENT OF OBESITY

The primary condition for preventing or treating obesity is to create permanent behavioral changes in people. In other words, to make all the recommendations from the eating pattern to the exercise program a way of life instead of seeing it as temporary and short-term. As long as we cannot put these recommendations into our lives, we lose weight when we continue with the program, and it is inevitable to regain the weight after the diet ends. That’s why Aksu draws attention to the importance of losing weight slowly, and says that because people see excess weight as an aesthetic problem, they apply to them with requests to lose 8-10 kilos in 2 weeks. “The ideal is to lose between 0.5 and 1 kg per week, and between 4 and 6 kg per month. Weight should be lost gradually so that our body and we can adapt to the situation. The first question the applicants ask us is when will this diet end and when will I start eating again. No such thing. What we call proper nutrition is actually choosing the right food at the right time, in sufficient quantity. And of course increasing your physical activity. Therefore, the philosophy of eat often, eat less, eat regularly should be adopted,” says Aksu.

WEIGHT LOSS IS PERSONAL

Saying that nowadays people apply the regime lists they see in the media without consulting a specialist, Aksu states that the first step of raising awareness is to stop applying these lists. “Weight loss is personal. Diseases of the person, age, gender, eating habits of the individual and, of course, social status are very important. Because if you are someone who eats out often, stays at home or works actively, your metabolic rate will differ. Therefore, a personalized program should be prepared. If a diet program you see in the newspaper is well below the basal metabolic rate, you will reduce your metabolic rate even more while trying to lose weight,” Aksu says, emphasizing that real weight loss is not weight loss.

Real weight loss is considered to be a decrease in the amount of fat in the body. You may have lost the weight from the water or from your muscles, but if your waist circumference is still the same, for example, this shows that you are not really losing weight. Rapid weight loss is also not recommended because it usually causes muscle and water loss. That’s why people should definitely lose weight with a slow and unique program.

MEDICAL TREATMENT OF OBESITY

Obesity treatment needs to be done not only with a dietitian, but also with a teamwork that includes an endocrinologist, physical therapist, and in some cases, a psychologist. Diet therapy, medical therapy and surgical treatment methods are used in the treatment of obesity. Surgical treatment is applied with methods such as gastric balloon and gastric banding, especially in individuals with a body mass index above 40 (morbidly obese). Surgical treatment can be applied to individuals who cannot be treated with a nutrition program, whose life is severely affected by obesity, for example, whose movements are restricted, and whose other health problems increase.

Two types of drugs are used in medical treatment. Drugs that reduce the absorption of fat and suppress appetite. Medication must be administered under the supervision of a doctor.

NUTRITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS…

Eat 6 meals a day, 3 main and 3 snacks. Eating frequently is very important for regular blood sugar and keeping our liver stores from getting empty. You need to take food no more than 3.5-4 hours a day.

Do not delay your meal times, eat regularly.

Avoid one-size-fits-all diets. In order for the body to function regularly, it is necessary to get enough from foods containing carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

Consume 2-2.5 liters of water per day. Although drinking plenty of water does not directly cause weight loss, it is necessary for the breakdown of fats.

Eat plenty of vegetables and salads. Thanks to their fiber content, they are important in terms of both providing satiety and helping to balance sugar and cholesterol levels. 4-5 servings of vegetables and 2-3 servings of fruit should be consumed per day.

Prefer wholemeal bread. Bran, rye, whole-wheat bread-like brown breads should be consumed to provide satiety and regulate sugar balance.

Increase your physical activities. Do not forget that doing sports has the right rules. Sports should definitely be started 1 hour after eating, not on an empty stomach. Since the fat in the body starts to be burned after 20 minutes, at least 25-30 minutes of exercises are recommended. The dose should be started with 10-15 minutes at first and gradually increased. Try to spread the exercise every day instead of fitting it into 1-2 days of your life. If you are one of those who say “I can’t do sports”, get off at least two stops before the minibus and walk, don’t use the elevator, go up and down the stairs by walking, don’t drive for short distances. Even these small changes will increase your metabolic rate during the day.

Use by mixing sunflower oil, olive oil, corn oil, hazelnut oil and soybean oil together.

Cook by adding 2 tablespoons of oil to 1 kg of vegetables.

Put no more than 1 teaspoon of oil in salads.

Do not add oil to meat dishes. Limit the amount of fat you consume during the day. Put no more than one teaspoon of oil in salads. Also, use by mixing sunflower, soybean, corn oil, hazelnut oil and olive oil together.

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