Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a condition of altered bowel movements, which is the same condition as ongoing abdominal discomfort or pain. It is the condition that persists with changes in the habit of diarrhea and constipation during stress or emotional periods.
IBS is seen in all age groups. However, patients with IBS are most uncomfortable with the feeling of urgent defecation, followed by bloating and the number of defecations. Abdominal pain in IBS patients is usually cramping, of varying severity, localized in the lower quadrants and does not wake them up at night.
IBS AND NUTRITION RELATIONSHIP
The aim of nutrition therapy in IBS is to provide adequate and balanced food intake, to organize the nutrition program of the individual according to the symptoms of IBS and to explain the potential role of food in the management according to the symptoms they show. Nutritional therapy in IBS should be directed towards the symptoms. Foods that may be associated with symptoms should be removed/reduced from the diet. In case of diarrhea, it is low in fiber, in case of constipation it is rich in fiber, in cases where diarrhea and constipation are seen together, 20 grams of bran should be added daily in addition to the low-fiber diet. Soluble fiber is more effective than insoluble fiber
Intersection points for low or high FODMAP content of foods have been identified. The emergence of intersections has been through careful clinical observation and patients’ understanding of symptoms. Foods and beverages containing more than 0.5 grams of free fructose per serving, those containing more than 3 grams of fructose regardless of glucose (with a high fructose load), and those containing more than 0.2 grams of fructose are at risk in terms of affecting symptoms. The FODMAP diet for IBS cuts down on wheat, onions, beans, certain groups of fruits and vegetables, milk and products containing lactose, sorbitol, and some sweeteners.
IBS AND FODMAP RELATIONSHIP
FODMAP is an acronym for fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols.
Common features of FODMAP components are that they are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, quickly fermentable by bacteria, and are small and therefore osmotically active molecules. They are called fermentable because they can undergo fermentation in the colon. Their fermentation in the colon is due to their incomplete absorption in the small intestine and the absence of hydrolase enzymes suitable for digestion or the low concentration of essential enzymes.
A dietitian with experience in the field has a very important role in determining the nutritional mistakes that play a role in the formation of symptoms and in the success of the diet. The evaluation and training of the dietitian ensure that the diet is successful. It has been determined that one-to-one explanation of the low-FODMAP diet in patients with IBS provides dietary success.
The low-FODMAP diet appears to be a very effective treatment for IBS, and studies show that there is evidence of the effectiveness of the FODMAP diet in controlling functional gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. may cause. Since sorbitol and mannitol are more absorbed in patients with IBS than in healthy individuals, causing an increase in gastrointestinal symptoms, it is recommended that these polyols be restricted in patients with IBS.