Internet addiction

“Internet addiction is a broad context, addiction encompasses many behavioral and impulsive control problems. For example, internet addiction, internet impulse behavior, information addiction, computer addiction etc.” They defined it as (Armstrong, 2001). However, they preferred the term pathological internet use instead of internet addiction (pathological internet use); They claimed that the term addiction is the psychological and physical dependence of an organism on the use of a chemical or narcotic substance (Davis, 2001). They defined Internet addiction as: “A person’s excessive use of the Internet caused by a mental and behavioral disorder, where it includes a strong desire to stop reuse of the Internet or reduce Internet withdrawal. Similarly, it may be associated with mental and physical symptoms” (Tao R, et al., 2008). He defines Internet addiction as “a chronic or cyclical obsession that creates tensions and tolerances that increase the time spent on the Internet, while creating an irresistible desire to reuse, resulting from repeated use of the Internet” (Yang, 2008). Internet addiction includes psychological and physical addiction. As a result of this irrational overuse behavior, internet addiction can eventually lead to personal, social and psychological damage along with somatic symptoms”. These two definitions are both comprehensive definitions of internet addiction and are widely used. Internet addiction can be divided into six types: (1) online gaming addiction, (2) cyber-relational addiction, (3) cyber-sexual addiction, (4) information overload, (5) cyber impulse action, and (6) computer technology addiction. .

6.2. DIAGNOSIS OF INTERNET ADDICTION

Young (Young KS, 1996). According to 10 criteria for pathological gambling in DSM-IV, eight questions specific to internet addiction were determined:

Do you feel preoccupied with the Internet (think previous online activity or anticipate next online session)?

Do you feel the need to use the internet in increasing amounts to ensure your satisfaction?

Have you made repeated unsuccessful attempts to control, reduce, or stop Internet use?

Do you feel restless, depressed or irritable when trying to reduce or stop Internet use?

Do you stay online longer than originally intended?

Have you jeopardized or risked losing an important relationship, job, education or career opportunity because of the internet?

Have you lied to family members, therapists or others to hide the extent of your dependence on the Internet?

Do you use the Internet as a way to escape from problems or to get out of a dysphoric mood (eg feelings of helplessness, guilt, anxiety, depression)?

Patients were considered “addicted” when they answered “yes” to five (or more) of the questions and their behavior could not be better explained by a Manic Episode. The cut-off score of “five” was consistent with the number of criteria used for Pathological Gambling and was seen as a sufficient number of criteria to distinguish between normal and pathologically addictive internet use. Professor Tao Ran, who framed the “criteria for clinical diagnosis of internet addiction”, believes that criteria for determining the extent of internet addiction should be combined with the following to form a comprehensive assessment:

(1) standard disease course (eg, mean daily continuous internet use greater than 6 hours and meeting symptomatic standard reached or exceeded by 3 months);

(2) Social functioning (ie, learning, working and communication skills) is impaired due to prolonged Internet access;

(3) have demonstrated symptomatic criteria.

Specific symptom criteria include: prolonged, repetitive use of the Internet, the purpose of using the Internet for learning and non-studying, or not helping their own learning and work, according to the following symptoms:

(1) a strong desire or urge to use the Internet;

(2) whole body discomfort, irritability, inability to concentrate. Zou et al. 33. Irregular sleep and other withdrawal reactions when reducing or stopping Internet use; The withdrawal response can also be achieved through the use of other similar electronic media (television, hand game, etc.).

(3) should be facilitated by meeting at least one of the following five:

increased use of internet time and input level to achieve satisfaction;

difficulty controlling the beginning, end, and duration of internet use despite repeated efforts to stop it;

persistent use of the Internet, regardless of obvious harmful consequences;

reducing or abandoning other interests, entertainment or social activities due to internet use;

using the internet to escape from problems or alleviate negative emotions (Tao R, Wang JN, Huang XQ, Liu CY, Yao SM, Xiao LJ 2008).

6.3. GAME AND INTERNET ADDICTION

It has been associated with emotional abuse and game addiction. Emotional abuse has been defined as verbal attacks on the child’s sense of worth or well-being, or any humiliating or humiliating behavior towards the child by an adult or older person (Bernstein et al., 2003) being, care, support). Past research has shown that emotional abuse is associated with various social, emotional and behavioral problems (Maguire et al., 2015). Playing games to regulate the onset of these problems and negative mood is a diagnostic criterion at this stage (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Numerous studies have emphasized that escapism motives predict the addictive use of online games (eg, problematic and addictive internet use (Dalbudak, 2014). Gaming is a diagnostic criterion for the onset of these problems and regulating negative moods (American Psychiatric Association, 2014). 2013. Furthermore, numerous studies have emphasized that escapism motives increase the addictive use of online games (eg, problematic and addictive internet use (Dalbudak, 2014).

The Cognitive-Behavioral Model for Pathological Internet Use (Caplan, 2010) suggests that individuals with psychological problems tend to prefer online interaction, which may lead to Internet use for mood regulation. This pathway can result in inadequate self-regulation that leads to the development of pathological use of the Internet. The Person-Impact-Cognition Interaction (I-PACE) model recently reviewed by (Brand et al., 2019) claims that early childhood negative experiences are among the predisposing variables of addictive behaviors such as addictive internet use. The I-PACE model provides a framework that argues that the interaction between executive functions, such as emotional and cognitive responses to a given stimulus and reduced inhibitory control, contributes to the development of addictive behaviors. Consistent with these theoretical models, addictive use of the Internet can be viewed as a psychological mechanism for coping with the psychological pain of negative early experiences. Recent studies have shown that depression and/or anxiety (Grajewski & Dragan, 2020; Shi et al., 2020), alexithymia (Schimmenti et al., 2017), low self-esteem (Zhang et al., 2012) and emotion regulation disorder (Grajewski and Dragan, 2020; Shi et al., 2020).

The nature of online activities includes experiences that can evoke feelings of dissociation, such as not understanding how time flies, feeling like someone else, and fainting. Therefore, these reinforced dissociative experiences in the network can lead to addictive online behavior (Griffiths, 2003). Boysan et al. (2019) proposed the term “online dissociation”, which reflects the dissociation experiences experienced during online activities such as identity confusion, escaping from reality, observing reality and losing the sense of reality.

6.4. INTERNET ADDICTION TREATMENT

Setting a Starting Point: Three techniques are used to set a starting point for treatment, but not all techniques appear to be equally effective when treating internet addiction. First, treating therapists are divided on the feasibility of exercising the disadvantage/advantage balance, as it is most beneficial to people who are still considering change. In this case, most patients are already motivated to change. On the other hand, it seems beneficial for patients to write down the (long-term) disadvantages of behaviors that are more easily overlooked in conversation. Therefore, it can provide a useful starting point for the solution.

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