EMG, that is, electromyography test, is a method used in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. There are many tests applied under the name of EMG for neurophysiological examinations. EMG is basically a test that examines the nervous and muscular system. There are many tests that examine the central nervous system such as nerve conduction studies, examination of muscles with needle EMG, reflex studies, SEP.
There are two basic tests in classical EMG. It is nerve conduction studies and needle EMG examination of muscles. Nerve conduction studies are performed with small electrical currents. Contrary to popular belief, it is a painless test in experienced hands. It is mostly applied when nerve compressions and diseases involving the nerves are suspected. Polyneuropathies, nerve compression in the wrist (carpal tunnel syndrome) are the most common diseases. It is also helpful in the differential diagnosis of muscle and nerve diseases in some cases.
Needle EMG is mostly used in the diagnosis of muscle diseases or leg and arm pain due to lumbar neck hernia. It is done to understand how much the nerve roots are compressed in waist and neck hernias and whether the nerves are damaged or not. EMG result can be important to decide on surgical treatment in hernias. EMG is also the test to be applied when there is an unknown weakness in the arm and leg muscles. It makes a definitive diagnosis whether the weakness is caused by the muscle itself or a disorder in the muscle’s nerve. It is an absolutely necessary test to diagnose congenital nerve and muscle diseases in children. In addition, ALS involving the central nervous system is essential in the diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Child or infant EMG shots are basically the same as adults, but require experience. In addition, SEP, VEP, which examines the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord) and is performed with an EMG device; There are also tests such as BAEP.