Let’s get to know diabetes first. Diabetes is a disease that causes problems in other metabolic events in the body, including blood sugar balance. In diabetic individuals, blood sugar should be kept within a certain range with medical nutrition therapy and necessary medication/insulin therapy. When the patient continues his treatment carefully, blood sugar can be kept in balance. Thus, while blood sugar is in balance, we prevent cell defects caused by diabetes. I would like to add that even though we have established this balance most of the time, diabetes is not a disease that can be completely cured. In other words, the patient should comply with the requirements of medical nutrition therapy even after blood sugar is controlled.
For now, the upper limit of blood sugar has been determined as 100 within the most up-to-date information. Although it can write 100-120s in some assays, you should know that it is now 100 because there is such an update. In healthy individuals, the postprandial glucose should be below 140 mg/dl in the second hour. Since the carbohydrate content of the foods consumed before these measurements is not known, the value above 140 units should always be examined, although clarity cannot be achieved.
To repeat it again,
Diabetes is caused by the insufficiency or ineffectiveness of the insulin hormone in our body, yes, but since the body is a mechanism, other hormonal mechanisms that work at the same time to increase your insulin sugar while trying to reduce your insulin also direct the treatment.
In individuals with diabetes, blood sugar should be kept under control and medical nutrition therapy should be continued for a lifetime. If you have been diagnosed with diabetes, it does not mean that you will have a shorter life or a lower quality of life than healthy individuals. On the contrary, a regular blood sugar and strict monitoring always creates an advantageous situation. It is important to remember that if you have been diagnosed with diabetes, it is important that you obtain a special nutrition program and proceed in this order. You must have a notebook, file, purse-home blood glucose meter for blood sugar monitoring, and your precautions against sugar imbalances.
There are basically 4 types of diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, Gestational diabetes and some special forms of diabetes. These forms are different from each other and do not transform into each other. Type 2 diabetes patients are no longer considered to have Type 1 diabetes because they have to use insulin. There is no transition between these diseases.
Type-1 Diabetes: It is a type of diabetes that occurs in childhood and early youth, occurs as a result of the destruction of the pancreas in its own immune system and requires the use of insulin as soon as it occurs. Because the problem here is in the cells that make basic production.
Type-2 Diabetes: Although this type of diabetes is mostly seen in adults, it is the most common type of diabetes that begins to be seen in obese youth and even in children due to malnutrition and genetic transition. The age of diabetes decreases day by day due to malnutrition, introduction to simple sugars while still in the mother’s womb, deterioration of metabolic health, inactivity.
Gestational diabetes is diabetes that occurs during pregnancy without any previous diabetes. It threatens the health of the baby as well as the mother, and it is very important to control it.
Special forms of diabetes are diseases that occur due to other diseases.
Diabetes symptoms and things that are common in people who usually go to the doctor before the diagnosis: excessive thirst, drinking a lot of water, dry mouth, frequent urination (especially at night is an important symptom), weakness, feeling of restlessness, inability to clear the mind, burning feet , tingling, itching sensation, recent eye disorder and rapid change in eye number can be given as examples.
Blood glucose can be measured in a person with these symptoms and complaints, regardless of whether he is hungry or full. Diabetes can be diagnosed if the blood glucose value is above 200 mg/dl after this measurement. It is one of these methods.
The most used method is the result that most of us know, by fasting for 8-10 hours on average, and the value we give in the morning on an empty stomach. If the sugar you give on an empty stomach is above 126 mg / dl, the diagnosis is made.
Another method is the oral glucose tolerance test, which we call OGTT. The test glucose determined by this method is given to the patient, and after 2 hours, the sugar level in the blood is checked. This test is definitely not done to a person who has been diagnosed with diabetes.
Now we can start moving on to the nutrition part about diabetes.
First of all, it is not right to try to reduce carbohydrates, which are seen as bogeyman and are the main energy source of our body, in individuals with diabetes. Although it varies from person to person, the needs of each patient are different. The most important distinction here is to relax the body and organs with the consumption of high quality carbohydrates and to support blood sugar control with nutritional support.
From healthy carbohydrates, oats, rye, dried legumes are important. Individuals with diabetes should consume legumes 1-2 times a week.
Fiber consumption provides an advantage as it balances both blood sugar and blood total cholesterol. For this reason, importance should be given to vegetable consumption and olive oil should be preferred as oil. Here, you should take care that the olive oil you use while cooking is riviera and the oil you use in salads is extra virgin.
Omega-3 intake is important. Take care to eat 1-2 fish a week with the method of oven, grill, steaming.
It is important to control blood lipid levels in individuals with diabetes. Adequate omega intake will provide improvements in the picture.
You can get support from the beneficial fatty acids and minerals of nuts such as almonds, walnuts and hazelnuts in your snack during the day. If you do not have a special program, try to exceed the size of a small palm at a time.
Bulgur is highly nutritious thanks to its minerals and fiber content. You can choose 3 spoons of bulgur pilaf instead of 1 slice of bread in your meals.
One of the things you should do after getting a diabetes diagnosis is to keep a regular blood sugar monitoring and nutrition diary. In this way, you will be able to see more clearly our general sugar level, which foods we repeat more often, and how much you consume from which group.
For blood sugar monitoring, write down your fasting sugar and your blood sugar 2 hours after dinner each day in a notebook or a dated file. After a while, only your fasting blood sugar will be enough for follow-up. Our goal here is to see if your blood sugar, which is in the normal range in the evening, rises towards the morning. In this way, the functionality of our liver glycogen stores can be considered.
An increase in blood sugar is of long-term importance, and a decrease in blood sugar is more urgent and vital. When your blood sugar drops below 70 mg/dl, you can add 1 tea glass of cherry juice or 4-5 pieces of sugar cubes.
In the treatment of adult diabetes patients, blood sugar, blood fats, blood pressure (blood pressure) and body weight should be controlled.
The main goal in treatment is to keep blood glucose levels as close as possible to those of an individual without diabetes. For this, treatment should be planned in a safe range that will ensure that hypoglycemia as well as hyperglycemia does not occur too often. Targeted sugar levels may vary depending on additional health problems in diabetic patients.
** It is very important for people with diabetes to consume high quality and the right amount of carbohydrates. These carbohydrates can be taken from the grain group, legumes, fruits and vegetables.
3 main and 3 snacks should be planned during the day. It should be consumed from all food groups in the nutrition program.
* 2-3 liters of water should be consumed per day.
* Avoid sugar and sugary foods. Sugary products such as honey, sugar, jam, molasses, marmalade, syrup, pastry, cookies, cakes and chocolate should be avoided. In addition, beverages with added sugar such as cola, soda and ready-made fruit juices and alcoholic beverages should not be consumed. You can consume it by consulting the products suitable for diabetics. (such as diabetic jam etc.)
* You should eat foods rich in fiber.
*Physical activity should not be neglected. 150 minutes of exercise per week is very beneficial in terms of vascular quality.
* More sour fruits should be preferred instead of fruits with higher sugar content such as bananas, figs, grapes, melons, watermelons, mulberries and apricots. When fruits with high sugar content are adapted to the person, portion control should be done with supplements that lower the glycemic index.
* Suitable fruits and vegetables should be consumed with shells. It is aimed to provide slow sugar absorption with fiber intake.
* Foods with high protein value such as milk, yogurt, ayran, kefir, cheese, walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds should be consumed 15 minutes before eating foods containing carbohydrates.
* Grain or brown bread should be preferred instead of white bread, wholemeal pasta should be preferred instead of pasta, and bulgur pilaf should be preferred instead of rice pilaf.
* Consumption of dried legumes should be increased. I recommend 2-3 times a week for my clients.
*Frying in oil, roasting and the consumption of foods with added oily sauce should be avoided.
* Tail fat, tallow, butter, margarine and all fatty foods should be controlled. Because the general blood vessel quality is much more important in the diabetic patient and it is important to keep the blood fats in the appropriate range.
* Very salty foods such as pickles, brine, canned, homemade salty tomato paste should not be preferred. Salt and sugar are related nutrients. If you have diabetes, you should definitely check your blood pressure status (even if it is not diagnosed) at certain intervals and eat accordingly.