I Have an Ovarian Cyst, Should I Worry?

In women, the ovary is an important organ that produces the hormones estrogen and progesterone. They are located in the lower abdomen on either side of the uterus. Sometimes a fluid-filled sac called a cyst may develop in the ovaries. Many women develop at least one cyst in their lifetime. In most cases, cysts are painless and cause no symptoms. Ovarian cysts do not usually cause dysfunction. For this reason, it often occurs and disappears unnoticed.

What are the causes of ovarian cysts?

The most common cause of ovarian cysts; hormonal irregularities. Normally, in each menstrual period, a cyst called a follicle, which carries the egg cell in the ovaries and can reach 3 cm in size, forms. Then this cyst ruptures and the egg is exposed. If the egg is not fertilized, it is excreted in the form of menstruation after 14 days. However, if the woman has hormonal irregularity, the cysts carrying eggs do not crack and continue to grow to form a follicle cyst. The most common type of ovarian cyst in young people is a follicle cyst. They usually do not cause symptoms, but they can cause delay in menstruation. Their size is usually 2-3 centimeters and does not require treatment. They do not cause any complications. Sometimes birth control pills can be used to shrink the cyst.

What are the symptoms of ovarian cysts?

Ovarian cysts often do not cause any complaints. It is usually detected during routine check-ups. Pain is rare. Rarely, if the cysts rotate (torsion) or burst (rupture), severe pain may occur. There may also be menstrual irregularity, abdominal bloating and pain, digestive system disorders and urinary tract complaints.

Types of ovarian cysts:

  • Inclusion cyst (non-functional cyst)
  • Follicle cyst
  • Corpus luteum cyst (cyst formed after ovulation)
  • Theca-lutein cyst (cyst due to excessive hormone secretion)
  • pregnancy luteoma
  • Dermoid cysts (cyst consisting of hair, fat and other tissues)
  • Endometriomas (chocolate cyst)

Are ovarian cysts malignant? Could they be the reason for not having children?

80-85% ovarian cysts are benign and usually occur in women aged 20-44. If the causes of formation are hormonal irregularity, they can cause infertility.

How are ovarian cysts diagnosed?

Examination and ultrasound are sufficient for the diagnosis of ovarian cyst. Advanced radiological examinations are requested in case of suspicion of cancer or for differential diagnosis.

What are the treatment methods of ovarian cysts?

Treatment varies according to the type of ovarian cyst. Simple cysts are usually followed and birth control pills are used to shrink them. Antibiotic treatment is applied in inflammatory cysts. Cysts exceeding 8-10 cm in size or constantly growing, with a high probability of being malignant in ultrasound and blood tests, are removed by surgery.

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