hyperlipidemia

Hyperlipidemia refers to increased levels of fats in the blood, including cholesterol and triglycerides.
Although hyperlipidemia does not cause symptoms: heart, brain, arm and leg vessels
risk of developing serious disease by causing stenosis and/or occlusion in the feeding vessels.
It has heart attack, stroke, limb loss due to leg vein occlusion, renal vein occlusion.
Headed hypertension, kidney loss are diseases caused by hyperlipidemia.
Hyperlidaemia is a disease that needs to be treated.

Coronary artery disease risk factors:
-Hypelipidemia
-Diabetes mellitus type-1 and type-2
-Hypertension
-Smoking use
-Family history: Before 55 years of age in first-degree male relatives, first-degree female
history of heart attack in relatives before age 65
-Age
-Male gender
-Chronic renal failure

Types of lipids: The term lipid includes cholesterol and triglycerides. There are many different types of lipids that
These are called lipoproteins. Blood tests measure lipoprotein levels. Standard lipid
measurement of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and
Contains triglycerides. Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is estimated at one-fifth of triglycerides.
High total cholesterol increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, however treatment decision
It is usually taken according to the LDL level. If the total cholesterol level is less than 200mg/dl, it is normal, 200-240
It is considered as high cholesterol level if it is higher than 240 mg/dl. Total cholesterol can be measured at any time of the day, fasting is not required. LDL cholesterol is also called bad cholesterol. High LDL cholesterol levels increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. LDL cholesterol The target is determined by the presence of other risk factors for heart disease and whether there is known heart disease. Lower LDL cholesterol levels are targeted for high-risk patients for heart disease.

LDL cholesterol: It is calculated by subtracting VLDL and HDL cholesterol from total cholesterol and dividing by five. However, this formula is not valid if the triglyceride level is above 400mg/dl. LDL can also be measured directly. If LDL can be measured directly, it is not necessary to fast.

HDL cholesterol is also called good cholesterol. High HDL levels, especially 60 mg/dl
Levels higher than 40 mg/dl are protective against cardiovascular diseases. If the HDL level is less than 40 mg/dl
It is not protective against cardiovascular diseases. There is no drug to increase it. Smoking cessation and exercise cause a little increase. There is no need to fast while measuring HDL. Non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL cholesterol) is calculated by subtracting HDL cholesterol from total cholesterol. Non-HDL cholesterol is superior to LDL in the assessment of cardiovascular risk. It is a good predictor of cardiovascular risk, especially in type-2 diabetes patients and women. The target is determined by adding 30mg/dl to the LDL cholesterol target.

Triglycerides are the largest but lightest type of lipid in the blood.
It also increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. There is a risk of pancreatitis, especially at 600-800 mg/dl levels. Its blood level is less than 150 mg/dl, normal, between 150-450 mg/dl slightly higher, 450-886 mg/dl moderately high, 886 mg If it is higher than /dl, it is considered very high. Triglyceride levels should be checked after 12-14 hours of fasting.

When should I have my cholesterol level checked?
Many expert groups have guidelines for cholesterol screening. What
time differed in how often and when it would expire. But they were basically similar to each other.

Lipid screening in men aged 35 without other risk factors, other risk factors
It should be started between the ages of 20-35 in those with diabetes. Other risk factors are hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and a family history of heart disease at an early age. Lipid screening should be performed at the age of 45 in women with risk factors for coronary artery disease, and some argue that it can be done even at the age of 20.

Screenings should look for total cholesterol and HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides; every five years
one, in high-risk individuals, it should be repeated at shorter intervals.

Treatment
Risk assessment should be done in every patient with hyperlipidemia. LDL cholesterol level in treatment
It should be targeted. Patients with a history of heart attack, balloon-stent, by-pass history, peripheral
vascular disease, diabetes patients with organ damage, patients with severe chronic kidney failure are very
Patients with total cholesterol level more than 310 mg/dl, blood pressure higher than 180/110 mmHg, diabetes patients, and patients with moderate renal failure are at high risk.
is in the group. The LDL cholesterol target should be lowered below 70 mg/dl in the very high risk group and below 100 mg/dl in the high risk group.

All patients with hyperlipidemia should be on a diet. Saturated and trans fatty acids LDL
increases cholesterol. The effect of carbohydrates on LDL is neutral. Therefore, saturated fatty acids
However, excessive use of carbohydrates raises the level of triglycerides and decreases HDL.
Direct cholesterol-lowering effects of fiber-rich fruits, vegetables and legumes
Trans fatty acids taken with diet should be minimized as much as possible, total energy intake should be reduced.
Less than 1% should be from trans fats. Energy taken from saturated fats is less than 10% of total energy
should be less than 7% in patients with hyperlipidemia.
It should be between 45-55% of the energy. Daily fiber intake should be 25-40 g, 7-13 g of which is soluble fiber.
should be.

Weight control and exercise reduce LDL cholesterol and increase HDL.
They should do 30 minutes of regular exercise. While excessive alcohol use raises triglyceride levels, light use raises HDL.

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