How to make an effective presentation

From our school life to business life, we may have spoken and made a presentation in front of the community in many places and times. While making presentations is such a common activity, we have been able to attend very few presentations that we have been influenced by and found successful in our lives. Many people find the opportunity to improve themselves based on their own experiences and the practices they see successful in others. However, this is a time-consuming method. Acquiring knowledge and skills in order to make successful presentations has become an increasingly common and important training. The subject of this presentation is how to prepare successful presentations and how to overcome the fear of presentation and how to make effective presentations. Delivering an effective presentation requires prior work. It is possible to consider these studies during the presentation preparation process.

The stages of planning, preparation and realization of the presentation can be counted as presentation components. Planning is a critical step in preparing a successful presentation. Effective planning helps to collect the content, put it in a logical order and present it in a results-oriented way. It should be clear on the topics that are wanted to be presented and the issues that the audience should be informed about. A successful presentation will allow you to contribute effectively and positively to the audience (Silvis, 2014:5).

Essentials of effective presentation;

1-Using Necessary Visual Aids

For a presentation, a study should be carried out from the selection of the auxiliary images to be used in the presentation environment to the preparation of the presentation file. After all these are completed, the speech is carried out in accordance with the speaking plan. The use of body language, making an effective introduction and keeping attention, and planning what to do in the question and answer section are also studies that should be considered for a successful presentation, as well as the preliminary work for speaking.

After the presentation plan is prepared, it is decided where and how the visual aids will be used. The features related to the development and use of images for a presentation need to be considered. Visual aids influence the success of a presentation. High-quality visual representation strengthens, and low-quality ones weaken it. Because visual aids complement conversations, aim for well-designed visuals that are aesthetically appealing.

2-What You Need to Have in the Presentation Dossier

Many presenters use slides or other visuals, especially when giving long speeches. The right visual aids can enhance presentations. Images should be relevant, easy to read and understand. The visuals to be used in the presentation files should enhance the presentation but should not replace the speech. Slides should be planned to add images to conversations and to narrate using these slides. The number of slides should be limited. The best slides are the ones that viewers can interpret and understand at a glance and are eye-pleasing. Lists or paragraphs on slides should not be compressed to fill all empty spaces. Use keywords and sentences that you can expand while speaking. The amount of text to be used while creating the presentation file is very important. There should be as narrow a range of text as possible on the screen. However, important concepts should be included in order for the audience to follow the subject.

A number of restrictions may be encountered when choosing a font. Things that look good on your computer may appear poorly or unreadable on the mirror. Among the features to be considered in font selection, attention should be paid to font selection, font size, use of upper and lower case letters. In general, a number of features should be considered in slide design in terms of titles, transitions and closures. It is also important to choose the background and font colors to be used while creating the presentation file. If a presentation is planned that will bring a corporate identity to the fore, colors that will reflect this should be preferred. Of course, this should be done if the colors are suitable for this job. Generally, dark fonts should be chosen when light-colored backgrounds are selected. Care is taken to ensure that the font color and background contrast colors. Software programs make it easy to embed pictures and graphics into slides. An image or two on each slide will give your audience a way to piece together presentation information. However, images should be kept to a minimum so as not to confuse or distract people. A balanced and clean, uncomplicated look should be given between the text and the images.

3-Works to be Done During the Realization of the Presentation

It is expected to start the presentation with a comfortable and safe stance when starting to talk. First of all, brief and clear information about the infrastructure and aims of the presentation is given as planned, and then the main points are explained. The presentation file, namely the screenshots, should complete the speaker. The speech should not be a technical report. For this reason, it would not be correct for the speaker to transfer all the words he will say to the slides. The text in the presentation should only focus and keep the attention of the audience.

When the speech is completed, the information that the presentation ends directly should not be given to the listeners. Pre-planned effective ending sentences should be used. The topic should be summarized and the audience should be invited to action as part of the presentation. The audience should be thanked. The question-answer part is carefully managed.

Being able to identify important steps to ensure successful presentation activities and effective speaking The key principles that must be addressed for a successful presentation are:

• The harmony of the subject and the audience;

• Organize information effectively;

• Determining the correct and sufficient amount of information;

• Start and finish on time;

• Speaking to be heard and understood; selection of the right presentation aids;

• Communicate with confidence.

There are also six principles of effective speaking that Adair (2004:56) offers:

• be clear and precise;

• Be prepared;

• Be simple;

• Be lively;

• Be natural;

• Be concise and concise.

4-Effective Use of Body Language

The use of body language adds sincerity to the words and reinforces self-confidence (Olson, 1998;72). Therefore, care should be taken to use body language while speaking. However, including exaggerated movements may cause the audience to be uncomfortable with this situation. It will be enough to look for an opportunity to act more and fulfill a behavior. Elegant or polite behavior should be preferred while performing the movements. “For speaking to be effective, body language should be used in a natural, energetic and reassuring way in accordance with the meanings we want to give” (Tekinalp, 2007, 94). It should be taken into account that body language reveals human thoughts during speech, therefore it is necessary to be sincere in movements. The use of silence during speaking is as important as the use of body language. Silence first gives you time to think and reinforces the key points. This silence can occur mostly in the time used to glance at the text on the screen. The way we sit, the way we smile, the way we move, the way we sit, the way we laugh, the way we look into the speaker’s eyes or the scowl, the look at the ceiling or the floor are universal body signs that everyone can understand and do. We can talk about hundreds of body signs specific to the person and culture. But some signs are almost universal.

Silence, first of all, gives time to think and strengthens the basic points. Using body language consciously during this will enable us to make an effective and successful presentation.

Here are the clues about what we should pay attention to in terms of body language while speaking (Tekinalp, 2007:95-109):

• He should make eye contact while speaking.

• Mimics should be soft.

• Movements should be natural, understated and respectful.

• He should look cheerful.

• It should show that you trust yourself.

• Facial expression should support speech.

• Be humble.

Body language is realized through gestures and facial expressions. Facial expressions that are formed as a result of the use of facial muscles to make a meaning or to create a meaning are defined as mimics. Head, hand-arm, foot-leg movements and movements expressing the use of the whole body are also called gestures. Mimics and gestures can occur either intentionally or unintentionally. It appears as a means of self-expression. It also includes cultural features. It is learned, shaped and transmitted in the process of socialization. However, the rules of behavior that determine gestures and mimics should be followed, especially in public speaking. In such environments, certain gestures and mimics should be avoided, and the frequent and exaggerated use of body language is not preferred (Atıntaş & Çamur, 2005: 79).

You can show that you feel good during the presentation by using gestures and facial expressions that express comfort and clarity (Atıntaş & Çamur, 2005: 197):

• hands open, palms up,

• unbuttoned or unbuttoned jacket (for men),

• making eye contact,

• smile, lean forward, relaxed image,

,• hands away from the face or behind,

• upright posture, feet slightly open,

• thumbs hanging on belt or pocket,

• finger snapping,

• don’t hit something with your palm.

When we have an idea about the gestures and facial expressions used when we need relaxation or confidence, we can avoid them and hide our tension. Mimics and gestures that we should avoid can be listed as follows (Atıntaş & Çamur, 2005: 198):

• clenched fist,

• caressing the arms,

• biting off the skin around the nail,

• squeezing an object,

• biting the pencil and eyeglass frame,

• touching where to sit before sitting,

• hand to throat contact (usually women)

In order to be able to communicate effectively during the presentations, the outfit we choose should also be taken into consideration. It is possible to talk about some criteria that should be considered when choosing the clothes we will wear during the presentation or in the business environment.

• It is important that it is suitable for the institution. We should consider what kind of business environment we are working in.

• It is necessary to pay attention to its suitability for the position. You may have noticed that people in managerial positions always dress more formally.

• Relevance to the target is important. You have to dress according to the rules of the environment you are going to attend an event.

• Clothing suitable for age and body structure should be chosen. One of the most important points to consider when choosing clothes is the choice of fabric.

When choosing fabric, care should be taken to choose fabric that does not wrinkle, does not smell, is durable and has a quality appearance. In addition, the fabrics that are not suitable for choosing the type of fabric are as follows: linen, velvet, silk, taffeta, lace, fleece, jersey, lamé, organza, leather, suede, chamois, denim, chiffon, synthetic fabrics. There are also unsuitable patterns in terms of patterns: animal patterns, rose and large flower patterns, large geometric patterns, very vivid colors.

It is trying to get rid of the obsessions that we have and are often unaware of in a study to be done before presentations and meetings. These obsessions prevent the person from making an effective and persuasive presentation and may also damage his image.

IMAGE BREAKERS

It is trying to get rid of the obsessions that we have and are often unaware of in a study to be done before presentations and meetings. These obsessions not only prevent the person from making an effective and persuasive presentation, but also damage their image. For this reason, we see that the term image breaker is used for obsessions and similar undesirable situations. Being aware of what these are will enable them to be prevented or avoided (Vural, 2007: 205).

Obsessions: Some unconscious actions can be frustrating for others. Such obsessions need to be controlled as much as possible. Help from family and close friends can be taken to recognize and control these obsessions: blinking, playing rings, clocks, etc., jingling money, looking at the tips of nails frequently, constantly curling a lock of hair.

Appearing nervous: One of the signs that you are uncomfortable being in public is making you feel nervous. This tense image can be considered as image-breaking as it shows that you are inadequate in presentation or that you are not confident in yourself. To hide tension, the following behaviors should be avoided: crossing arms and feet, clasping hands, tapping feet, shaking legs or feet, biting nails, playing with hair or jewelry, scratching a lot, clearing your throat constantly, loosening your tie, playing with watch and cuffs , putting hands in pockets.

Appearing offensive: Unwanted words or behaviors may be encountered during the presentation or in the questions section. However, giving an offensive appearance, even for defensive purposes, will damage the image. Being aware of offensive image cues will allow you to control yourself: arms crossed at chest, staring, staring persistently at a certain point, clenching fists, leaning over someone.

Being rude: During the speech, you should be polite to the listeners and to the people who ask questions in the questions section. Being polite should not be seen as a weakness, but should be considered a positive social behavior. Therefore, the following rude behavior should be avoided when giving a public speech: looking away when someone is talking to you, puffing, grinning, snapping fingers, standing close to people, collecting files and papers before the end of the conversation, yawning. One of the elements that damage the image is cleanliness.

Not being careful about cleaning will damage the image. These cleaning elements can be listed as follows (Kaşıkçı, 2006:35-38):

• Hair cleaning

• Nail cleaning

• Tooth cleaning

• Mouth cleaning

• Ear cleaning

• Nose cleaning

• Facial cleansing

• Body cleansing

• Clothes cleaning

• Document/Document cleaning

PREPARATION STAGES OF THE PRESENTATION

Presentations are activities carried out orally in a planned manner, with the use of visual aids when necessary, for the purpose of providing an understanding of an idea or action. Considering these features, the three important steps for the speaker to make a successful presentation are Planning the Presentation, Preparing the Presentation and Performing the Presentation. The planning and preparatory work done will provide an adequate basis for a dynamic presentation. During the presentation, attention should be paid to effective communication and the smooth running of the presentation. During the presentation, attention should be paid to speaking clearly, controlling the tone of voice, speaking rate and volume, and using effective body language. Care should be taken to use presentation aids that will strengthen the presentation.

PLANNING STAGES OF THE PRESENTATION

Before a presentation can be made, a plan must be prepared. After a presentation plan is prepared, the presentation content is prepared, and in the final stage, the presentation is made. Determining and preparing the content of the presentation to be made during the planning stage of the presentations is a very important work. While applying the presentation plan, it is necessary to consider elements such as presentation purpose, place, duration, audience characteristics, preparation of the content, visual aids. There are three important steps in planning a presentation. This process establishes a guideline to lay the groundwork for a presentation that achieves goals and meets the needs of the target audience: determining the presentation purpose, characteristics of the target audience, identifying visual aids. The presentation may be geared towards raising funds, evaluating a work, and motivating teammates. The presentation should be as simple and to the point as possible. Presentations are often presented in front of a large group and allow discussion of their results. The first thing to do in a presentation plan is to define the presentation goals and objectives.

Our main goal when making a presentation is to understand and remember the message, which is the purpose of communication. It is necessary to have knowledge about the characteristics of the target audience at the stage of planning the presentation. Because the content should be given according to the characteristics of the listener. It is also useful to know in advance the number of the audience and who will attend the meeting.

CREATING THE PRESENTATION CONTENT

To create the presentation content, it is first necessary to decide which ideas to share and which main points are important. In order to limit the presentation to be made and to make an effective presentation, it is necessary to focus on certain points. It should not be forgotten that the ideas to be presented should be presented in a certain order. After the content has been created that will enable the subject to be handled in a smooth and effective manner, a plan for the speech should also be developed. To organize the data, the main points are ordered chronologically, historically, spatially, or by topic. Key ideas and the key points and problem solutions that support these ideas are written. In order to create a good speech plan, the text is written by creating the introduction, body and conclusion sections. When planning presentations, it is generally decided what needs to be done in each of the introduction, body and conclusion sections. The introduction should be short and interesting. The connection with the audience should be established and presented in a way that attracts the attention of the audience. In addition, a sincere approach should be followed. In the development section, information is presented in a way that takes into account the harmony and partnership of ideas. In the conclusion or closing section, closing sentences are included and important issues are emphasized. In presentations, some work should be done before the speech, such as the preparation of the presentation cards that we will use during the speech and the rehearsal. Presentation cards should be prepared in order not to forget important issues or necessary information during the presentation. In addition, rehearsal work must be done to ensure that the presentation will continue effectively.

Key Steps to Making a Presentation Successful for Effective Communication

In addition to the plans and preparations to be made before a presentation, it is important for the speaker to work to improve communication skills or to have knowledge of effective communication techniques in order to make a successful presentation. The main characteristics of effective communication are to be reliable, meaningful and understandable. Effective communication skills are now an important professional requirement and are vital to turn them into successful performance. Being a good communicator requires being a good speaker and a patient listener.

Effective communication skills allow a person to understand the mindset of others and to grasp the situation easily. It helps the individual to achieve the desired results even in an unusual situation. A good communicator is a highly motivated person who always attaches importance to his goals and achieves them in the most effective way.

THINGS TO DO TO DEAL WITH PRESENTATION ANXIETY

The idea of ​​speaking in front of a crowd can be uncomfortable for many people. Problems such as trembling hands or dry mouth are encountered when starting to speak. It’s not just beginners who have a fear of presentations. Many experienced servers may also feel nervous or excited. Before giving a presentation, there are a number of actions you can take to reduce and control the anxiety you feel. There are a number of general problems that can be experienced when one cannot cope with excitement: using a boring language, lack of command of language, prolonging speech, drowning in details, inappropriate tone and speaking speed, lack of ability to use silence, lack of body language, insufficient and ineffective eye contact, fear of failure. , speech not clear, not well prepared. Before the presentation, during the preparation of the presentation, the recommended practices can be used to help you relax: Visualization, Meditation and Exercise.

HOW TO MAKE GROUP PRESENTATIONS?

A team or teams are small groups of people with complementary skills who work to help their members achieve a common goal that they all share. People in the group are expected to have knowledge and skills that complement each other. The reasons for being a group are that they have common goals and objectives. They usually consist of a small number of people and are responsible to each other. Knowing each other well and learning to act together in order to adapt in group presentations has become a condition for a successful presentation.

RESOURCES

1-Altıntaş, E. & Mud, D. (2005) Body Language- Nonverbal Communication. Current Publications.Istanbul

2-Kaşıkçı, E. (2006) Image, Communication and Body Language, Hayat Publications. Istanbul.

3-Tekinalp,Ş.(2007) Good Speech is a Brand. Beta Releases. Istanbul

4-Vural, B. ( 2007), Effective and Successful Speech, Seventh Edition, Hayat Publications, Istanbul.

5-Olson, Jeff (1999) Effective Presentation, Hayat Publications, Istanbul

6-Adair, J. (2004) Effective Communication. 2nd Edition. Turkish: Ömer Çolakoğlu, Babıalli Culture Publishing. Istanbul.

7-Silvis, C. (2014) Presentation Skills, edited by Carol Silvis, Cengage Learning PTR.

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