How is dyslexia detected?

Special Learning Disability; It is a disorder that is diagnosed when individuals with normal or above-normal intelligence have significantly lower levels of reading, mathematics, and written expression than expected, according to standardized tests, considering age, intelligence level, and education (APA 2001).

In its broadest sense, learning disability is a neurological-based disorder that manifests itself with conditions such as fluent reading and reading comprehension, difficulty in perceiving mathematical expressions, and inadequacy in subjects that require reasoning skills. Although the reasons are not known exactly, there are many ideas put forward on this subject. Among these ideas, we hear the most; It is a negative process that can affect the brain functions of children at any stage of their development, but especially in early childhood.

So how is dyslexia detected? Symptoms of dyslexia differ in the preschool and school period. Things to consider especially for preschool children; Difficulty in remembering the concepts (shapes, numbers…) that were taught during concept teaching, having difficulty in taking the given instructions in order and applying them in that order, having difficulty in distinguishing and confusing similar shapes, having difficulty in copying, having difficulty in retaining information in long-term memory, more than expected during the activity. performing activities with a slow response and having individuals diagnosed with dyslexia in the family.

The symptoms seen in school years are; Difficulty in learning letters, sounds, syllables and words and confusion when reading and writing (db, mn, ae, sz…), having difficulty separating words into syllables, having difficulty in ordering letters, reading by skipping letters, having difficulty pronouncing words that they have not heard before, line is difficult to follow.

For all these reasons, the commitment of children with dyslexia to school decreases, and therefore their relationship with school gradually comes to an end. Especially in school-age children; Problems such as completing the homework with very long and painful processes, not being able to organize, not being able to meet the time, problems with self-confidence or anger control problems due to the difficulties experienced and not wanting to go to school over time are frequently seen.

In these cases, parents and teachers should pay attention to; The strengths and weaknesses of individuals with dyslexia should be recognized and studies should be carried out on their weaknesses by getting support from their strengths. They should be supported to plan their time use. The nature of their problems should be explained. Because individuals with dyslexia are aware of the difference in themselves, but their knowledge about reasoning is insufficient. In order to protect them from unwanted negative attitudes and behaviors, the individuals around them should be made aware of dyslexia. In order for them to see that the concept of success in their lives is not only achieved with academic success and to support their social life, the child should be directed to art or sports appropriate to his skills and characteristics. When talking to individuals with dyslexia, it is necessary to focus on their positive points and encourage them. The development of the child should be closely followed by comparing it within itself and in cooperation with the teacher and the parent.

In addition to all these, all children diagnosed with dyslexia have legal rights granted by the state. These rights are; Education programs (IEP) are prepared by the school for the areas in which they have difficulties because they do not have mental disabilities, the student receives the support of a lecturer/writer during the exam, extra time is given or individual exams are held.

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