How do we understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that begins in childhood and can spread throughout life. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can occur at any time from birth to 12 years of age. The period that begins to be distinguished most frequently is the preschool age period. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is basically defined as inattention, focusing problems, inability to maintain attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity (acting without thinking about the consequences). However, these symptoms also constitute normal developmental stages in children up to the age of 5 years. For this reason, it may not be diagnosed at an early age. Often, parents do not notice problems that indicate ADHD until the child starts kindergarten or school. However, the structure and routine of the nursery or classroom environment can make unnoticed problems at home more obvious. In addition, the presence of other children in these environments allows parents and teachers to compare the child with their peers. These situations also facilitate the diagnosis process of children.

Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder can cause different symptoms of varying severity in each child.

This disorder is divided into various subtypes according to the predominance of different findings. There are basically three different subtypes. These three types are respectively; The predominant type of attention deficit is called the hyperactive-impulsive subtype and the composite type.

Attention Deficit Symptoms;

Difficulty paying attention to details or making mistakes.
Inability to maintain attention on tasks or tasks that require attention.
When talking face-to-face with someone, making scattered sentences that show that you have difficulty listening during conversation.
Having difficulty in completing the tasks assigned to him, having difficulties in following the instructions given.
Difficulty organizing and organizing tasks and activities.
Losing your belongings frequently.
Forgetfulness in daily activities.

Symptoms of hyperactivity;

Constant movement of hands and feet.
Not being able to stay in one’s seat for a certain period of time.
Regardless of the environment and people, there is a constant feeling of rush or restlessness in the place.
Finding activities that can distract oneself in leisure activities and having difficulty doing these activities quietly.
Seriously, fast and talk a lot.

Symptoms of impulsivity;

Trying to answer the question before it is completed.
Having trouble waiting in line.
Interfering in other people’s business or interrupting their conversation.
Being inclined to say whatever comes to mind, even if the time and place is not appropriate.

The most frequently observed situations in the preschool period; They are physiological or psychological injuries due to unstoppable constant movement, fastening, insistence, tendency to climb, poking around, acting without fear, being curious and acting without thinking about the consequences. Such behaviors may change in certain situations as they get older.

School period of children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder; Behaviors such as not being able to sit in the classroom, having difficulty in listening to the lessons, not being able to do their studies in a planned and regular way, having problems in relations with their peers even if they are able to succeed in their classes, forgetting their homework, and having difficulty in taking regular notes are observed.

During the adulthood of these individuals; They continue their lives with problems such as inadequacy in tasks that require concentration, prolonging the tasks they need to do until the last minute and having difficulty completing them later, putting their belongings in the wrong places and forgetting them, not using their time effectively, changing jobs frequently, not being able to organize more than one job at the same time.

The prevalence of ADHD in the community is reported to be approximately 8% in childhood, 6% in adolescence and 4% in adulthood. In addition, on average, the frequency is 4 times more common in boys than in girls.

An integrative, multidimensional and systematic approach is required in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity. The first step should always be to inform the families, schools and social circles of people diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder about what needs to be done in this regard and the right attitudes and behaviors. In particular, parents need to learn about how to relate to their children, how to behave, how to protect them, and how to gain a sense of responsibility. Such individuals should be encouraged to discipline, the price should be determined according to the negative behavior they have done, they should always be clear, the things that are asked to be done should be explained by dividing them, not on top of each other, they should be encouraged to take notes for situations that they need to remember, a suitable working environment should be prepared, a time limit should be set for the work they will do. Certain parts of the objects that he constantly forgets should be created, he should be told that he should not move on to another job before he finishes the work in hand, that he should give himself time to calm down before reacting in discussions. In addition to these, pharmacological support is also important, it is also necessary in line with the needs of the case. Planning the treatment with drugs by considering the comorbidity and adding problem-focused cognitive behavioral psychotherapies to this ensures rapid progress in the treatment process.

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