How Sound Is Formed:
Air flow from the lungs is used for sound formation. Lungs breathe air into the larynx
They push and the air passing between the vocal cords in the larynx creates sound. This sound is the oral cavity, tongue, teeth,
it takes the form of speech through the nasal cavity and sinuses.
Where are the vocal cords:
After the oral cavity, two paths are formed anteriorly and posteriorly. The path in the back is related to the digestive system and eating
It goes to the stomach through the tube. The way in front is through the larynx to the respiratory tract (bronchus and larynx).
to the lungs).
The vocal cords are located in the larynx. The vocal cords, which are two on the right and left, are mobile organs and
they approach each other and separate. Speaking while opening sideways during breathing
they move towards each other and vibrate. Adam in the length of the location of the vocal cords
It corresponds to the 2 cm lower part of the protrusion known as the diamond.
What Does Hoarseness Mean:
When it comes to hoarseness, it is generally thought to be a decrease or no sound, but any kind of
The formation of a different sound than normal is called hoarseness. Bifurcations, vibrations, muffled sound and other
The entire change in voice is called hoarseness.
Causes of Hoarseness :
There are many causes of hoarseness. Among them, it is very simple and can even heal spontaneously.
As there are causes, there may be serious diseases that can be treated with major surgery. to hoarseness
Diseases that can cause include:
– Laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx)
– Benign masses such as nodules, cysts or polyps in the vocal cords
– Lung diseases
– Paralysis of the nerves that provide vocal cord movement
– Postnasal drip due to allergies or inflammations
– Acid leakage from the stomach upwards (reflux)
– Tumors of the larynx and surrounding tissues
– Pulses around the vocal cords
– Psychological reasons
– Keeps the vocal cord together with other parts of the body, such as diabetes or nervous system diseases
When should I go to the doctor:
In fact, as soon as there is hoarseness, it is necessary to go to the doctor. However, this is not possible in our country.
For this reason, in cases of hoarseness lasting more than 1-2 weeks, a doctor should be consulted. Sound
difficulty breathing with hoarseness, bleeding from the mouth, difficulty swallowing, or a lump in the neck (swelling)
If you have such complaints, it is necessary to hurry to apply to an ENT specialist. have hoarseness
time should not be immediately worried about a serious illness, nor belittled and neglected the examination.
How to Inspection:
In polyclinic conditions, vocal cord examination can be performed either with a mirror called the larynx mirror or with a so-called endoscope.
done by visual method. In both, your doctor will hold your tongue and pull it out and use a mirror or
will insert the endoscope into the mouth. This sometimes causes the patient to develop a gag reflex and nausea.
it could be. Sometimes it may be necessary to numb the patient’s throat. After your doctor sees the vocal cords
It will then ask you to say ‘i’ to control its movements. In this way, any movement
limitations can be examined. Sometimes the vocal cords cannot be adequately examined with these methods. This
In this case, it is called direct laryngoscopy and while the patient is in the supine position, the patient’s mouth is
It is necessary to use a tubular instrument that is inserted and allows examination of the larynx. During this process
More detailed examination can be done using a microscope. When performing direct laryngoscopy, local or general
anesthesia is required.
What Kind of Inspections Should Be Made:
The most important part in understanding the cause of hoarseness is the patient’s examination. during the inspection
usually an idea of the cause is obtained. In the examinations to be made, it is usually selected according to this idea. Laryngitis
Since the diagnosis is made by examination in diseases such as (vocal cord inflammation), nodules, polyps, cysts, it is generally examined.
don’t need to do. Among the tests that can be done for hoarseness are the following:
– Lung X-ray
– Sinusitis movies
– Allergy tests
– Investigation of diseases such as diabetes, tuberculosis
– Examination of the larynx with computed tomography or magnetic resonance
– If a tumor is seen, taking a biopsy and examining it in pathology
– Movies about the brain in paralysis of the vocal cord nerve
Your doctor will decide which of these tests will be done according to what he sees in the examination.
How to Treat:
The treatment of hoarseness varies according to the disease causing hoarseness. Because hoarseness itself is a
It is not a disease but a symptom of other diseases. Therefore, information about treatment is specific to each disease.
will be described in the section. To give brief information, vocal cord inflammation is generally treated with medication.
In the past, more operations were performed for diseases such as nodules and polyps, but in recent years, more voices
cured by education. Correct use of the patient’s voice can reduce nodules and polyps or
usually causes its extinction. For this purpose, your doctor will give you recommendations. vocal cord paralysis
sometimes due to diseases such as tumors and sometimes due to goiter surgeries. If it is related to the tumor
The organ needs treatment. Sometimes the vocal cord nerve can be cut during goiter surgery. In this case, some
and muscle surgeries. In cases with acid leakage from the stomach (reflux disease), both medication
There are some precautions to be taken by the patient as well as the treatment. These measures are described in a subparagraph. if
If the hoarseness is due to a malignant tumor of the larynx, the patient is treated with surgery. In this surgery
Depending on the extent of the tumor, part or all of the larynx is removed. Voice function from this surgery
necessarily affected. Some assistive methods may be required for speaking.
What Should I Pay Attention To:
There are some situations that the patient should pay attention to in order to avoid hoarseness or to recover easily.
has. These include:
– No smoking and alcohol use (the role of cigarettes is much higher)
– Using the sound in the right tone, without making too much thickening and thinning
– Avoiding talking for too long
– Speaking using the diaphragm without tiring the larynx muscles
– Drinking plenty of water
– Avoiding throat clearing
– For patients with acid leakage from the stomach, not drinking tea, coffee, cola, alcohol in the evening,
not eating enough to fill up, not eating and going to bed right away, sleeping on a high pillow
– The humidity and temperature of the environment you are in are suitable
When is Surgery Necessary:
Some of the diseases that cause hoarseness are treated with surgery. Nodules, polyps and cysts with sound therapy
If it has not improved or its dimensions are large, they can be surgically removed. Tumors are almost always surgically
they are treated. Sometimes surgeries are needed to improve speech in paralysis of the vocal cord nerves.
is done. Information about these surgeries is explained in the section of each disease.