Gynecological Cancers in Women

Cancer still remains the disease we fear the most. Early detection is important in cancer; Especially gynecological cancers are even more important as they are slow-growing cancers. Our chance of treatment is quite high since it will be detected in the early period in women who have regular check-ups.

Cervical cancer (cervical cancer): It is 85% squamous cell cancer, and it is the second most common gynecological cancer. It is common between the ages of 30 and 35. Early start of sexual life, high number of partners, low socio-economic level, smoking can be counted among the contributing factors. HPV infection is now considered one of the most important factors.

Pelvic examination and colposcopy help us to detect cancer at an early stage with 90% probability. While there is usually no complaint in the early period, vaginal bleeding is often the first finding, especially after intercourse. Bad smelling discharge towards advanced stages groin pain is one of the other complaints.

Treatment is surgery (radical hysterectomy) in the early stages and radiotherapy (radiation therapy) in the advanced stages.

Smear (pap smear): Pap smear is one of the most important parts of the gynecological examination. Smear removal frequency should be done every 2 years until the age of 35, and then once a year, if no problems are detected after the sexual life begins. Those who have risk factors such as more than one partner, a history of sexually transmitted disease, genital condyloma, and previous abnormal smear test should have it done as often as the doctor recommends.

A smear is a screening test. In case of positive findings, diagnostic procedures such as colposcopy, cervical biopsy, conization or probe curettage should be performed.

Vaginal douching and menstruation should not be done for at least 24 hours before the smear is taken.

Uterine cancer (endometrial cancer): It is the most common in gynecological cancers. It is mostly seen over the age of 40. It develops from the endometrium and spreads first to the reproductive organs and then to the environment and other organs.

Risk factors:
late menopause
not having children
Endometrial hyperplasia with atypia.
The most common finding is abnormal vaginal bleeding. Definitive diagnosis is made by endometrial biopsy. Pap smear is not helpful in diagnosis.
Bleeding in menopause and the endometrium being more than 5 mm on ultrasound are the factors that make us suspect.

Treatment:Surgery is the basis, and radiotherapy (radiation therapy) and chemotherapy can be done.

Ovarian cancer;
It is the most common cause of death among gynecological cancers due to its late finding. They are classified according to the cell group from which they originate:

Epithelial cell tumors
Stromal cell tumors
Germ cell tumors
Nonspecific connective cell tumors
Metastatic (from other tissues) tumors

Usually the first sign is swelling in the abdomen. Tumor markers help in tracking.

Other Gynecological Cancers:

Vulvar cancer
Vaginal cancer
Fallopian tube cancer

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