When teeth are not cleaned properly, food residues that accumulate on and between them produce bacteria. These pus-like deposits, which we call bacterial plaque, are the chief culprit of dental caries and gingivitis, and over time, they form tartar as a result of the precipitation of saliva. Microorganisms that reproduce inside the bacterial plaque break down sugary foods and produce acid. And this acid decays the tooth, starting in a small area and growing. At a later stage, shooting may be inevitable. The first sign of gingivitis is bleeding in the gums. It manifests itself even more with color, deformities and bad breath in the gums. Tooth loss caused by gingivitis is much more than tooth loss caused by caries.
First of all, it should be noted that healthy gingiva is light pink in color. It is firmly adhered to the tooth and bone, and has a shiny – grainy appearance similar to an orange peel.
Symptoms of Gum Disease:
• The first and most important symptom of gingival diseases is gingival bleeding. Healthy gums do not bleed
• If there is swelling and redness in the gums,
• If there is recession in the gums and sensitivity on the exposed root surfaces,
• If black areas are seen on the gingival margins or between the teeth due to tartar,
• If there is inflammation between the tooth and the gingiva,
• If the teeth are wobbly, elongated and there are openings between the teeth,
• If there is a constant feeling of bad odor and bad taste in the mouth,
It is necessary to be examined by a dentist before it is too late. What Causes Gum Disease?
The main cause of gum disease is bacterial plaque, a sticky transparent layer that clings tightly to the tooth. You can notice plaque by scraping your teeth with your fingernail. One milligram of plaque contains between 200 and 500 million bacteria. In addition, the following factors also affect your gum health.
• GENETIC FACTORS According to studies, there is a 30% genetic predisposition. In addition, with poor oral care, the probability of developing gum disease increases 6 times. If there is a person with a gum problem in the family, you should definitely be examined by a gum specialist.
• CIGARET As we all know, smoking causes many important diseases such as cancer, lung and heart diseases. Apart from all these, it is also very harmful for the oral mucosa and gums. It causes softening of the gums and the development of gum diseases.
• MEDICATION USE Birth control pills, anti-depressants, heart medications affect your oral health. Therefore, if you are using one of these drugs, please warn your dentist and pay special attention to your oral hygiene.
• HORMONE CHANGES You should pay special attention to your oral hygiene during periods of intense hormonal changes such as pregnancy, puberty, menopause, menstruation. Your gums are more sensitive during these periods. The susceptibility to gum disease increases.
• STRESS In addition to being one of the causes of many diseases such as hypertension and cancer, it is also a risk factor for gum diseases. Studies have shown that stress, including periodontal diseases, makes it harder for the body to fight infection.
• CLEARING OR GRINDING THE TEETH They cause periodontal tissue destruction by causing a decrease in the force between the tooth and gingiva. One of the reasons for receding gums is clenching teeth. This squeezing must be stopped by attaching a night plate.
• BAD NUTRITIONIt causes the body’s immune system to weaken and accordingly, it makes it harder to fight infections, including gum infection.
• DIABETES AND DIABETES Diabetes patients are in the high risk group for periodontal (gum) infection. They should definitely pay attention to their oral hygiene by having their routine gingival checks performed by a gingival specialist (periodontologist).
• POORLY MADE CROWN AND FILLINGS Fillings, crowns and bridges that press on the gums and overflow cause problems in the gums.
• Healthy Teeth and Gums
If the bacterial plaque is not removed, it hardens and deposits called tartar or tartar form. Toxins (harmful substances) produced by bacteria in plaque damage the gums. Toxins wash the supporting tissues around the gums, move away from the teeth, and more bacterial plaque accumulates in the formed periodontal pockets. As periodontal disease develops, the pockets become deeper. Bacterial plaque adheres to the exposed root surfaces of the teeth. The bony support of the teeth is lost and untreated teeth begin to wobble and eventually recede. What are the other factors that cause gum diseases?
The main cause of periodontal diseasesAlthough it is bacterial plaque, other factors can affect the health of your gums.
Diet and tobacco use affect your oral health. A diet low in nutritional value reduces the body’s ability to fight diseases. Also, stress can affect the body’s ability to ward off disease. Tobacco users irritate their gums more than non-smokers. Diseases that affect the body’s defense system, such as leukemia and AIDS, can worsen the condition of the gums. In cases where people are very susceptible to infection, such as uncontrolled diabetes, gum disease is usually much more severe and more difficult to control.
Hormonal changes during pregnancy cause the gums to become redder and more susceptible to bacterial plaque. An existing gum disease in its early stages may become more severe, especially during pregnancy.
Birth control pills, antidepressants, and some heart medications can affect your oral health.
Report the smallest changes in your general health to your dentist.
How are gum diseases diagnosed?
When dentists suspect the general appearance of the gums, they measure the length of the gingival pocket between the tooth and the gingiva with an instrument called a periodontal probe. Periodontal examination should be performed as part of every intraoral examination in adults. X-ray films can be taken to evaluate the bone tissue around the teeth. How can it be prevented from gum diseases?
You can play an important role in the prevention of periodontal diseases. In order to keep your teeth in the mouth for life, the bacterial plaque must be removed from the teeth regularly with tooth brushing, flossing and chemical agents every day.
In addition to the ones listed above, it is extremely important to go to the dentist regularly and have check-ups. Although daily oral care keeps the formation of calculus to a minimum, it cannot completely prevent it. Teeth cleaning by a dentist; It ensures that the hardened tartar in the areas that you cannot clean with toothbrush and dental floss is removed from the environment. Removal of calculus is called tartar cleaning. Your dentist can create a personal oral care plan based on your specific needs. With this program, you can practice brushing and flossing without damaging your teeth and gums.
You can get advice from your dentist about oral health products by visiting the dentist regularly. There are many types of toothbrushes, dental floss, mouthwashes and interdental cleaners on the market. Your dentist will help you choose the products that are most suitable for you.
Treatment of gingival diseases in the early stages is scaling and root surface straightening. At these stages, bacterial deposits and tartar are removed from the pockets around the teeth and the root surfaces are smoothed. With these processes, bacteria and toxin substances that cause inflammation are removed from the mouth.
In more advanced cases, surgical intervention may be required. The purpose of surgical intervention; It is to remove the tartar and diseased tissues in the deep pockets in the environment, to flatten the root surfaces for healing and to shape the gums for easy cleaning.
Periodontal patients should be seen periodically after treatments. The only way to preserve the positive results obtained with periodontal treatment is to brush the teeth, to use dental floss regularly and to use chemical agents that remove bacterial deposits from the environment. And the most important thing is to have your check-up at intervals recommended by the dentist.