The original form of the word intelligence was first derived by Aristotle from the word “dianeosis” by naming abstract processes of thought such as perception, sense, imagination, memory and logic (Hamachek, 1995). Of course, this definition includes information about intelligence, but since the definition of intelligence is not unique, many theorists have diversified these definitions. There are several indispensable elements among these definitions:
-Don’t make inferences from the experiment
– Adapting to and connecting with the environment
-Behaving skillfully and effectively
-Using existing talents and skills at the highest level
Since the preschool period is the beginning of the period of children’s interest, curiosity, movement, research, learning and showing what they have learned, intelligence is the subject of interest of many parents and educators.
Let’s examine this subject a little more in the light of the researches, information and applications:
Gifted or gifted children differ from other children in physical, mental and social aspects.
In terms of physical features:
1- They are superior to their peers in terms of their physical structure and health status.
2-They are above the normal group of children in terms of height and weight.
3-They walk early and talk early.
4-They have great physical energy.
5-They overreact to sound, aches and pains.
6- Sensory organ disorders, bodily disability, tooth deformation, etc. less common than normal children.
In terms of Mental Features:
one-They learn quickly and easily.
2- Vocabulary is wide. They can use words appropriately and properly.
3-They can do mental operations without difficulty.
4-They are ahead of their peers in making generalizations, seeing the relationships between events, transferring information, and logical associations.
5- Their attention span is long. They are very interested in abstract ideas.
6-They are constantly hungry for learning and knowledge.
7-They always ask questions. They are curious.
8-They have knowledge in some areas that other children are not aware of.
9-They keep and remember what they hear for a long time.
10-They ask a lot of questions and have a wide range of interests.
11th-They have great mental energy.
12-Practical information is abundant.
13-It has the characteristics of creativity and inventiveness.
14-Their imaginations are rich.
15-They often learn to read and write before they start school.
In terms of Social Characteristics:
one-They can easily make friends.
2-They can also choose their friends from those who are 2-3 years older than themselves.
3-They can be leaders in the group.
4-They do not like to be subject to others.
5-Their creativity has developed.
6-Adapts easily and quickly to new and different situations.
7- They are sensitive. They empathize with others.
8-However, not all these features are found in every child.
The experience of gifted children and the excessive intensity of their experiences cause some confusion in their emotional world. Being able to empathize, seeing from the perspectives of others, and wide memory capacity reduces their probability of forgetting and can be emotionally wearing out. Being sensitive individuals who can easily understand the feelings of others brings with them that they are also children who need support.
Every child is different. Every child is special. There are also different skills and abilities among children with the same IQ (intelligence quotient). No one is like the other. Each child should be evaluated according to their individual differences. Gifted children also have many special abilities, but not all of them are developed to the same degree. While some of these children’s abilities are well above their age, some of them may be average or below average.
Gifted and gifted children want to research more, have more information and learn more than other children. For this reason, it would be appropriate for gifted children to be recognized early between the ages of three and six and to benefit from appropriate education programs. Otherwise, if intelligence is not processed, it can be extinguished.
Their inquisitive nature, their desire for knowledge, their internal motivation, their long-term concentration, their high activities in art activities should be handled by knowledgeable people. However, although their cognitive, physical and social abilities are more advanced than their peers, it should never be forgotten that they are children.
All children, regardless of their abilities and capacities, have the right to live a happy and peaceful life.