Giant cell tumor of bone

Its incidence is 1 case per 1 million people per year. It is frequently seen in young people (20-40 and 40-50 years old). It is located at the ends of long bones. It is detected around the knee in 50% of the cases.

Complaints are in the form of pain or swelling. Sometimes patients may present with fractures.

Although it is benign, it can rarely jump to the lungs. When it jumps into the lungs, the foci can be surgically removed.

Because they are benign and close to the articular surfaces, they are often surgically scraped (curette) into the tumor. Although the scraping of the tumor can be performed with a normal curette, the recurrence rate is high (10-30%) in only curetted cases. After normal curettage, scraping with a motor called a bur is more effective. The repetition rate can be reduced to 5% by freezing the remaining cells (cryotherapy), burning (cauterization) or adding chemicals (phenol, alcohol).

If the bone is very weak, the gap formed by removing the bone can be repaired with prosthesis or other methods.

There are publications showing that the recurrence rate is reduced with the use of calcitonin (medications also used in osteoporosis-bone resorption) after surgery.

Although it is not malignant, it can transform into a malignant tumor at a rate of less than 5%. In recurrences that occur 2 years after the operation, the possibility of malignant transformation should definitely be kept in mind and a biopsy should be performed. If it turns into a malignant tumor, it should be removed with normal tissues without touching the tumor tissue and a prosthesis should be applied instead.

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