Genital warts and hpv in men and women

GENITAL WARTS AND HPV IN MEN AND WOMEN
Op.Dr.Kenan Ertopcu
Genital warts, which have been observed on the reproductive organs in foreign countries for years, have now started to appear frequently in our country.
What are genital warts?
Genital warts (condylomata acuminata) that can be seen in men and women are mostly herpes-like blisters caused by types 6-11 of sexually transmitted HPV (Human Papilloma Virus).
Where is it seen?
They can be found on the skin or on wet skin, such as the mucous membrane of the vagina. Although they are mostly seen in the genital areas of women and men and around the anus, they can also appear in the mouth, throat or any part of the body.
How does it look?
It can be difficult to identify genital warts when they are very small or before they become widespread. They may appear as a small dot or as protruding islets like cauliflower that cover the entire area. They can be in shades of gray, pink and brown. Since the definitive diagnosis is difficult in very small patients, they can be evaluated more easily with optical devices that magnify the image 15-40 times, which we use in the early diagnosis of cervical cancer, which we call colposcopy.
How do they find out?
Some do not have any complaints at all, and sometimes they may itch. The resulting genital warts may remain the same, disappear or multiply and become widespread, but they do not become cancer.
Genital warts are 98-99% transmitted through sexual contact. Although warts are not seen, both women and men can be carriers.
Ninety percent of HPV types 6 and 11 cause genital warts. There are more than a hundred models of HPV. Some models such as 16,18,31,45 are the causes of cervical cancer, penile cancer, throat cancer, colon cancer and other genital cancers.
HPV types that cause genital warts do not cause cancer. However, the possibility of encountering other HPV types sexually should not be ignored, especially in women, early diagnosis methods such as smear test should be applied.. In addition, there is a pathology laboratory in İzmir that determines HPV type groups with a swab sample taken from the cervix (similar to the application of a smear test).
How is HPV transmitted?
HPV is a virus that is mostly transmitted by sexual contact. However, there are those who argue that it is transmitted when the shared toilets and hygienic conditions are not taken care of, although it is very rare.
Full sexual contact is not required for HPV transmission. Even rubbing of two skins can transmit the virus.
1.Genital warts are also observed in virgins.
2.Condom (condom) is not fully protective against genital warts and other HPV types that can cause cancer. (70-80% protective)
When you see genital warts, it is not right to blame the other side as evidence. The virus may have been encountered a long time ago and the virus remained in the body without any symptoms. When the immune system deteriorates and the resistance is broken, genital warts may have appeared as in herpes. However, the absence of genital warts in men does not mean whether they carry the virus or not. It is also impossible to detect the virus. Genital warts can appear between 2 and 9 months after sexually transmitted HPV virus. However, they can wait for years without any symptoms and may appear after many years.
Should genital warts be treated?
Genital warts are virus stores and they rarely disappear spontaneously unless they are intervened, they can spread to their surroundings and other parts of the body in a short or long time. Touching, rubbing, or scratching can mediate the spread of genital warts.
How are genital warts treated?
Surgical interventions such as cautery (burning), cryotherapy (freezing), laser, excision (cutting) or treatments with superficial creams and solutions such as imikomod and podophylline are tried. The treatment method is decided according to the location, size and prevalence of the wart. We should consider that the treatment with the drug will last for months, and there may be complaints such as itching, soreness and burning due to the drug.
Do genital warts recur?
Yes, there is a possibility of recurrence. Failure to treat warts that are too small to be seen, not applying medicated treatment for an adequate period of time, weakening of the immune system and continuation of sexual intercourse with a woman or man carrying HPV virus increase the risk of genital warts reappearing.
How can we take precautions against genital warts?
Avoiding unsafe sexual intercourse is the basic element of protection from genital warts. Condom (condom) will be able to provide 70-80% protection. Considering that genital warts can occur even in the mouth and throat, we emphasize how inconvenient even oral sexual contact can be in the transmission of HPV.
HPV types 6-11 are the cause of 90% of genital warts. One of the two vaccines available in the market against HPV, which we call the cervical cancer vaccine in our country, we call the quadrivalent vaccine, provides protection against HPV types 16, 18, which are common in cervical cancer, as well as HPV models 6-11 that cause genital warts. The vaccine is recommended between the ages of 9-24. However, the most effective age of the vaccine is around 12-13 years. Assuming that HPV virus can be transmitted even by skin friction without full sexual intercourse, it is recommended that adolescents be vaccinated before their sexual impulses are fully developed.
The ideal period for the HPV vaccine to be administered is around the ages of 12-13.
Since the HPV vaccine is very costly in terms of economy, it is not paid by the social security institution or private insurance in our country. 1.,2. A total of three vaccines are administered in the 6th and 6th months and requires a total payment of approximately 750 YTL.
The HPV vaccine is highly protective. In many studies, it has been proven to protect up to 10 years. It is thought to last a lifetime.
It should not be thought that the vaccine fully protects against both genital warts and cervical cancer. Even though HPV models 16-18 are the most common types, there are 35,43 and many other types of HPV that cause cervical cancer. There are no vaccines against these models yet. not developed. There are also opinions that argue that the vaccines at hand have cross protection against these models.
HPV vaccine provides protection against 70 percent of HPV types that cause cervical cancer. Turkish Society of Gynecology and Society of Gynecological Oncology recommend HPV vaccine.
Considering the possibility of encountering other HPV types, those who have been vaccinated should have the pap smear test required for cervical cancer screening, which can occur frequently even at young ages, on a yearly basis. It is worth emphasizing that smoking is the second biggest risk factor that triggers cervical cancer.
Should boys be vaccinated?
In some countries, boys have also started to be included in the vaccination program. Men are not the only carriers of HPV. We see genital warts on the penis, around the anus, in the mouth or on any part of the body. Models that cause genital warts numbered 6-11 by rubbing and scratching are carried all over the body. In addition, by using condoms, men can only be protected from HPV virus by seventy percent. The effectiveness against virus types 16-18 in HPV vaccines will also protect men from penile, large intestine, mouth and throat cancers at certain rates.
As a result, HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. More than 40 types of HPV cause infections in the genital areas of men and women. These HPV types also cause infections in the mouth and throat in men and women. Low-risk HPV types cause self-explanatory genital warts, while other high-risk types cause cervical cancer and other genital cancers.
Many people who encounter HPV may not have symptoms or health problems. In 90% of these people, the immune system will clear the virus from the body within 2 years.
It seems that the dizzying rapid developments in medicine will be reflected in HPV treatment in the coming years. Our expectation is that in addition to the current HPV preventive vaccines, vaccines that treat HPV infection will be offered to health services in the coming years.

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