General Information in Gynecology

Ordinary Follow-up of Women Who Have No Complaints:

The first recommendation regarding gynecological diseases: “If any complaint occurs, a gynecologist should be consulted without delay” Delays in almost all gynecological diseases will complicate the treatment.

All women should have a gynecological examination and smear test at least every 3 years, even if they do not have any complaints. Smear has a very important place in the diagnosis of cervical diseases. It is especially important in the early diagnosis of cervical cancers. If the smear and HPV test can be performed together, a check-up every 5 years is sufficient.
It is recommended to do mammography and breast ultrasound at appropriate intervals after the age of 50 or after menopause. Breast cancer is a very common disease that puts women’s health at risk the most. In addition, all women should learn to self-examine once a month after a warm or hot shower on postmenstrual days.

Apart from these, as will be stated again below, necessary tests should be done in terms of bone resorption at appropriate intervals during the menopause period.


It is natural for every woman to have a noticeable amount of vaginal discharge outside of her menstrual period. This discharge is colorless and usually odorless. However, if there are changes in the amount and color of the discharge (it can be white-yellow-greenish) and accompanying pain, redness, burning and itching, it may indicate vaginal infections or some diseases that may occur in the cervix. Micro-organisms that may cause infection are determined by taking cultures and appropriate treatment is given. Delays in treatment can make healing difficult and even cause uterine and ovarian inflammations.

Uterine and Ovarian Inflammation

It occurs in women who have a sexual life. Common lower abdominal pains and increased sensitivity, increased vaginal discharge with foul smell, pain with intercourse, fever, chills and nausea-vomiting in advanced cases are the main findings. The intrauterine device (spiral) increases the risk. If left untreated, it can cause infertility due to severe lower abdominal pain, high fever, abscess formation and adhesions that may occur in the tubes. Delays in treatment can also complicate recovery.



Regular Quantity:
An average menstrual period is 28-30 days from the beginning of one menstrual period to the beginning of the next menstrual period. This period may be shortened to 21 days or extended to 35 days. In the middle of the menstrual period, there may be a small amount of bleeding (ovulation bleeding) that lasts for half a day. Apart from this, non-menstrual bleeding is not normal.

Painful Menstruation (Dysmenorrhea)
It can start from the first period or after it and continue with every menstruation. Some diseases can cause painful menstruation that occurs later. Endometriosis occurs as a result of the placement of the intrauterine layer in organs other than the uterus and is the most common cause. Apart from this, inflammatory conditions and uterine tumors are some other causes. Smoking, alcohol and obesity increase the risk. Abdominal and low back pain, nausea-vomiting, diarrhea, weakness and headache that may spread to the legs can be seen. Treatment is arranged according to the diagnosis. Appropriate painkillers are the first choice, but they should be started 1 day before the menstrual day to show their full effects. Birth control pills, exercise, vitamin support, hot shower and warm application to the abdomen can be recommended. In some rare cases, surgical techniques may also be tried.

Premenstrual Tension (Premenstrual Syndrome)

Many women experience nervousness, tension, unhappiness, weakness and fatigue before and during the menstrual period; sometimes various digestive system problems (abdominal bloating, nausea-vomiting, constipation); widespread bloating and weight gain; experience problems such as acne formation on the skin. In order to prevent this situation, the patient should definitely have a detailed conversation with his doctor and explain his complaints. Because each woman’s first important complaint may be different.

Regular exercise in addition to drug therapy; A diet rich in fibrous foods, low in salt, sugar and caffeine; regular sleep is recommended.

Period Delay:

Often, menstrual delays may be due to temporary reasons, no examination or examination is required, provided that it is not repetitive.
The most common cause is pregnancy. Apart from this, hormonal disorders, especially thyroid diseases, can cause delay in menstruation. In some cases, some cysts or tumors, especially ovarian cysts, can cause delay in menstruation.

inability to menstruate:

Pregnancy, ovulation irregularity, eating disorders (eating too little or too much – anorexia or bulimia), exercising too much, thyroid gland diseases and obesity (obesity) can be shown as the cause. After the cause is determined, the menstrual cycle is ensured with appropriate treatments. Otherwise, the risk of uterine cancer increases.


Quantity Excess:

Excessive menstruation: It can be described by the duration of menstruation exceeding seven days or the increase in daily pad use during menstruation. Due to severe bleeding, anemia and related weakness and inability to perform daily activities can be seen. It may be due to hormonal imbalances, uterine tumors, structures called polyps that may be in the uterus or mouth, abnormal pregnancies, intrauterine device, liver kidney or thyroid diseases. Appropriate treatment after examination, laboratory, ultrasonography and taking a piece from the uterus (biopsy) is made. is implemented.

The important point is that drugs should not be started without making a correct diagnosis. Since hormonal drugs are very strong, they reduce the complaint in a short time, but there may be a temporary improvement with the pressure of this drug. In some cases, they can hide an underlying disease!

Frequent menstruation:

Menstrual period falling below 21 days. It is mostly due to hormonal reasons. It is easily corrected with appropriate drugs.

Infrequent menstruation:

If the menstrual period exceeds 35 days. Again, it is mostly due to hormonal reasons. It is easily corrected with appropriate drugs.

Intermediate bleeding:Abnormal bleeding between two menstrual periods. It can be caused by insignificant or important different reasons. The causes of repeated bleeding are investigated and appropriate treatment is recommended after the correct diagnosis.

Postmenopausal bleeding:

Postmenopausal bleeding is the most important bleeding because they can be a sign of uterine cancer. In this case, first of all, a piece of the uterus should be taken (biopsy) and the correct diagnosis should be made and treatment should be planned for the diagnosis.


Uterine and Ovarian masses
Fibroids are the most common tumoral formations of the uterus and more than 99% are benign. It can cause complaints such as abnormal bleeding, groin-abdominal pain, frequent urination due to pressure on the bladder, constipation with pressure on the intestines, sometimes diarrhea and bloating in the abdomen, and painful sexual intercourse. Medical or surgical treatment options are evaluated according to the size and complaints it creates, as well as the age of the patient and the child’s request. For ovarian tumors, follow-up or surgical treatment is recommended by evaluating together with examination, ultrasound findings and special blood tests (tumor markers).

Cervical Problems:

It can have a wide variety of diseases, from simple inflammations to cervical cancers. The most correct recommendation is to consult a gynecologist without wasting time in case of a complaint, and to have a smear test once every 3 years if there is no complaint.
Screening of the cervix with a smear test is performed for all women. According to the test result, further examinations (colposcopy and, if necessary, biopsy) are performed in our clinic.

Genital Warts
Painless and hard warts on the genitals or around the anus are caused by a virus called HPV and is a sexually transmitted disease. It can be treated with creams applied on warts. Or cryotherapy can be applied. In some cases, the same virus may cause cervical problems. For this reason, simultaneous cervical examination and HPV test should be performed.

Urinary Tract Complaints
Complaints such as frequent urination, inability to reach the toilet and incontinence, burning during urination and intermittent urination should be treated with appropriate examination and examination, and after the correct diagnosis is made.

Bone Resorption (Osteoporosis)

One of the most important enemies of women’s health and quality of life after menopause is bone resorption (osteoporosis). Of course, bone resorption or reduction should be detected and appropriate measures should be taken. Osteoporosis is an insidious disease and may not cause any complaints until it reaches serious levels. In advanced cases and when complaints begin, unfortunately, it often becomes completely incurable.

Pre-pregnancy Examinations of Women Planning a Pregnancy
Today’s medical technologies and modern applications can provide a more comfortable and healthy pregnancy for the mother and the baby with a simple examination and some tests before pregnancy. The most logical thing is for couples who want a baby to apply to an obstetrician 3-4 months before the onset of pregnancy they desire.


Unwanted pregnancies are unfortunately still a very common problem in our country.


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