Functional dysphonia (FD) is the condition in which the structurally completely normal vocal cords cannot perform their proper vocalization function. In other words, it can be defined as the inappropriate or incorrect use of the normal vocal organ. In order to make this diagnosis, the patient should have been evaluated by a clinic experienced in voice disorders in the light of all necessary examinations. This patient group constitutes 10-40% of voice patients (1). Although the signs and symptoms of FD can vary widely, they can be seen in most patients following a previous upper respiratory tract infection. It is more common in women than men. It is usually transient and the treatment response is variable.

Various features of the voice can be negatively affected in FD. There may be deterioration in the intensity, pitch or general quality of the voice, and even in rare cases, the patient may not be able to make any sound at all (functional aphonia). Psychological factors and stress may cause the onset or increase of FD symptoms.

There are many definitions used instead of the definition of FD or for similar clinical conditions. Among these, psychogenic, converse, hysterical, hyperfunctional, muscle tension and misuse (misuse) hoarseness can be counted (2-6).

Inappropriate contractions of the small muscles in the larynx (larynx, dagger) are thought to play a role in functional dysphonia. It has been stated in different studies that one or more of the following mechanisms may play a role in causing these contractions (1):

1. Technically incorrect use of sound due to the necessity of using excessive sound (2-4)

2. Required learned voice adaptation after upper respiratory tract infection (5)

3. Increased tension of larynx and pharynx (throat, pharynx) muscles secondary to voice problems due to laryngopharyngeal reflux (7,8)

4. Overcorrection of the voice problem secondary to small vocal cord pathologies (such as nodules, polyps) or insufficiency (9)

5. Excessive tension in the larynx region due to personality traits or psychological reasons (10,11)

The diagnosis of FD is made as a result of a complete otolaryngology and head and neck examination, examination of the larynx with both traditional and current (endoscopic, videosyngostroboscopic) methods, and other examinations (such as voice analysis, diagnostic sound therapy, larynx electromyography) if necessary. can be placed.

Untreated FD not only negatively affects the individual’s quality of life, but also can lead to organic pathologies (such as vocal cord nodule) if it persists.

FD treatment is carried out with different drugs used when needed, as well as voice therapy methods that aim to teach the individual the correct voice behavior and apply it in daily life. Methods that the patient can apply on their own, such as adequate fluid intake, humidifying the air in the breathing environment, avoiding smoking, reducing general stress, speaking with an appropriate voice and breathing support, and avoiding the habit of clearing the throat frequently, are also very important for the success of the treatment (12). Making these precautions a habit is also very helpful to avoid encountering FD problems again.

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