There are curves formed by the muscles and bones that make up the foot. The absence of the longitudinal curve on the inside, which is the most important of these curves, is called flatfoot. This condition, also called flexible flat feet, is considered normal and followed up until the age of five if there are no other underlying abnormalities. This appearance on the foot continues until the child’s foot shape is formed and the ligaments are strengthened.
It is observed that the arch of the foot occurs when these children walk on their toes or sit on the edge of the bed and hang their feet.
When the child is around the age of four or five, as the ligaments and the muscles that provide the balance of the foot get stronger, the arch begins to appear while standing and the foot takes its normal shape.
In some children, the curve may not occur at all, the flexibility continues, but there is no problem in their daily life and they can even become professional athletes. These children may experience pain in the front or back of the shin bone between the knee and foot as they grow taller and gain weight in the future. Since this pain is mild, it is no longer a problem when insoles are used.
In another group of children, the feet have the appearance of flat feet and there is indeed a congenital problem in the relationship of the foot bones. In these children, in addition to the general appearance of the foot, even when they sit with their feet hanging down or walk on the tip of their toes, there is no curve and there may be pain.
In such cases, an x-ray should be taken considering that there is another underlying bone problem. For this reason, families should apply to orthopedic specialists when there is a situation that attracts their attention on their children’s feet, but they should also know that there is often no cause for concern.
The Relationship of Flatfoot with Shoes and Choosing the Right Shoes
When the child first starts walking, he does not need to wear shoes when he is inside the house. When the doctor comes to the doctor with the appearance of flat feet and it is understood that he has flexible flat feet, he should come to the clinic every six months- every year and have his gait checked. The child does not need to wear shoes indoors unless there is another reason for the flat feet.
Another thing to know is that the shoes will not shape the child’s feet. It should not be thought of as plaster. Whether the child wears shoes or not, if the problem seems to be corrected, it will be corrected when the time comes.
On the other hand, it is necessary to pay attention to the choice of shoes whether the child has the appearance of flat feet or not. The heel of the shoe should be a little stiff; Because the child has just started to walk, his heel must be on the ground.
The sole of the shoe should have a ridge that supports the inner arch of the foot. Another feature to be considered is that the sole of the shoe should not be soft. It is not recommended that the entire base be bendable, it is an important criterion that the area corresponding to the comb bone is flexible and the other places are not too flexible.
Specially made shoes should not be used unless the doctor deems it necessary. The majority of children with flat feet also have familial bond flexibility. These children can open their wrists more than ninety degrees, raise their fingers excessively, and their knees can slide far back without pain when standing. Flexible flat feet are most likely to occur in this group. As they grow up, they can continue their normal lives without any problems.
When the child grows up and reaches adulthood, secondary changes may begin to occur due to weight gain or standing for a long time. Insufficiency may develop in a group of muscles passing through the ankle. The first symptom is pain on the inside of the foot. This condition is similar to adult-type flat feet. In the examinations, insufficiency of one of the tendons or calcification in the bones can be seen; stiffer insoles, cast treatment, and further bone or tendon surgery may be required. However, these people are recommended to lose weight in the first stage.
Problems Related to Bones and Solution Suggestions
Sometimes an underlying osseous abnormality can be detected in children who are brought in with the complaint of flat feet. This is usually a simple bony abnormality. In the child, a bone spur can be detected in the middle part of the inner part of the foot. This is a congenital change. While there should normally be a bony prominence in that area, another bone structure may be present above the protrusion. Many extra bones can be seen in the anatomy of the foot, these are normal and this is one of those bones. However, since the heel turns outward when the foot presses in, the bone on the inside may be more prominent and this causes problems such as hitting the shoes and redness.
If the redness increases as the age gets older, this bone may need to be removed, which is a simple procedure. As a more serious situation; Some defects related to the alignment of the bones can be seen. When these are noticed, they are resolved with plaster treatment or various methods.