Family functioning and adolescence in substance abuse

Substance addiction is one of the most important problems facing all countries of the world, which continues to increase day by day and causes heavy damage to the social order. Addictive – drugs cause serious wounds, especially in the person himself, his family and society. Addictive substance; a problematic child and adolescence period, an unsuccessful education life, an irregular business life, a problematic marriage and family life cause a situation that will negatively affect many social lives (Ünal, 1991).

According to the world drug reports, it was reported that the number of substance addicts, which was 29.5 million in 2016, increased to 31 million in 2018. However, it is seen that 250 million people around the world used addictive substances in 2016, and this number reached 275 million in 2018. It has been observed that the number of people using substances worldwide increased by 25 million in two years (Yeşilay, 2018). When the situation in Turkey is analyzed, it was determined that 381,200 people used drugs in 1990, and this figure was 664,906 people in 2016. When we compare it to the population, the rate that was 0.007 in 1990 increased to 0.0082 in 2016. While 46.5 million people worldwide were substance addicts in 1990, this figure increased to 63.7 million in 2016. While the world population was 5 billion 288 million in 1990, it became 7 billion 444 million in 2016. While the number of people using substances has increased worldwide, it has been seen that there has been a decrease when we compare it to the population (Kurt, 2018).

Addictive substances have been used for different reasons in many geographies throughout human history, as they are a natural resource found in nature in the past. These substances, which were first used for therapeutic purposes in the field of health, started to be abused with the discovery of different properties in the future. With the transformation of substance use into addiction, it started to become a social problem and turned into a mental illness that needs treatment (Uzbay, 2009).

When considered from a developmental point of view, adolescence is seen as a risky period in terms of substance use and substance addiction, as the period in which the substance experimentation behaviors of individuals increase between the ages of 12-18 (Arslan, 2016). In this period, adolescents are exposed to social interaction and social influences along with many physiological, emotional and moral changes (Koç, 2004). Along with these developments and changes during adolescence, the acceleration in hormone secretion, the orientation to abstract concepts and the change in mental capacity affect the perspective of children trying to step into youth towards social life and self-perception. Inadequate social and familial support and the increase in personal failures pave the way for the formation of different problems. While it may cause temporary problems such as learning difficulties, introversion and aimlessness in some children, it may cause very serious social problems such as running away from home, having constant sexual intercourse, alcohol and substance use in others (Tamar et al., 2005). From this point of view, it shows that with the adolescence period, my individuals start to get away from their families in the process of independence and spend more time with their peers in order to gain new experiences, which leads them to a more risky life.

Many personal, environmental and familial factors can be effective, sometimes alone or together, in the emergence of substance addiction (Albayrak & Balcı, 2014). The person’s acquaintance with the substance may occur in the family environment, it may also occur in the family that the person may establish later, or a dependent family may occur when the person gets married while using the substance. Since the family is at every stage of the addiction process, it can be called “a family disease” (Ögel, 2018a). It has been observed that the parenting attitude of families has a significant effect on the acquisition of addictive behavior. The fact that the interaction within the family is minimal, there is a constant conflict environment, the messages given by the parents to the children are different and lacking in continuity cause individuals to turn to the addictive substance (Doğan 1996).

In the event of a negative change in the family structure and disruption of the system, family members may be the most important risk factor for negative behaviors such as substance use in adolescents (Çetin, 2013). The fact that family love and attachment are mutual, parents have a good education, and the family environment is peaceful, shows the protective feature of the family, since it will reduce the tendency of family members to substance (Ögel 2018a).

People who are addicted to drugs attempt to quit using drugs alone in order to get rid of many negative situations that occur as a result of substance use. However, addicted individuals face many problems such as the idea of ​​being able to overcome it on their own, not being able to stay away from the environment where the substance is found during the addiction recovery process, lack of sufficient information about substance use and treatment, and the emergence of reluctant attitudes towards treatment (Arıkan, 2011). This situation causes him to be unsuccessful against the substance. From this point of view, it will be possible for addicts to get rid of substance addiction with treatment programs that can meet their individual needs in professional treatment centers (Ögel, 2018b).

The first and most important step in addiction treatment is to stay away from the substance used by the addict or not to start it at all (Yeşilay, 2018). Having a healthy family, strong ties, effective communication patterns and problem-solving skills will be the most basic factor that can ensure that a person stays away from and does not become involved with drugs during adolescence, when he is open to many risky behaviors in terms of development. From this point of view, handling many environmental and family factors together in addition to the individual’s addictive behaviors in the substance addiction treatment process will enable the individual to lead a cleaner life.

In the treatment and rehabilitation processes to be developed for substance addicted adolescents, especially the family structure and healthy and strong relationships within the family will make the treatment process more effective and easier (Yaman, 2014). Being with the drug addicted family member during the treatment process and showing supportive attitudes will enable the treatment to reach more effective results (Cepello et al., 2005). Strengthening family ties and making communication healthier are seen as the strongest protective factor that an individual has against substance addiction. In other words, the family has a protective factor against substance addiction, a supportive and strengthening factor in the success of the treatment and the recovery of the addicted individual, and a protective feature that eliminates the risk of substance use again after the treatment (Küçükşen et al., 2016). According to 2017 statistics, with the involvement of families in the substance addiction treatment process, the success rate in treatment is 41% more effective. The biggest factor that affects the duration of a substance addicted adolescent stays clean and increases the success rate is the family (Yeşilay, 2017).

The family is a universal institution that is heavily influenced by social developments and ensures social continuity and harmony by changing these developments in its own structure. The family is the smallest “union” established by the husband and wife by complying with legal and cultural ties, living under the same roof and meeting many biological, psychological and social needs of the society such as reproduction, reproduction, love-being loved, belonging, self-development and realization, and providing social peace. ” (Özgüven, 2000).

The family has to improve the communication and interaction within the family, contribute to the society by being self-sufficient in the economic context, and be compatible with its own inner world and the outside world. As a result of these struggles, many risk factors and crisis situations occur. One or more of the members in the family face negative behaviors or external pressures. While functional families try to overcome the situation by adapting to changing situations, families with low adaptation and coping skills become dysfunctional (Nicholas, 2013). In families with dependent children, whether the family is functional is an important factor as the source of the problem. The degree of substance abuse, which is a problematic and criminal behavior, determines the quality and style of family relationships. Addiction affects the childhood role of children in the first place, and in the next process, it quickly starts to disrupt the family order by putting the family in many financial and moral difficulties. For this reason, the child’s view of the family and the family’s attitude towards the dependent child are one of the most important factors affecting the family order, whether the addictive behavior continues or not (Ögel, 2010).

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