Factors that increase the risk of developing some common cancer types

Lung cancer risk factors:

-The most important reason is tobacco products, especially cigarettes.

-Asbestos, air pollution

Risk factors for mouth, throat, larynx, esophagus cancers:

-especially smoking

Alcohol use along with smoking increases the risk.

Stomach cancer risk factors:

-Burnt oils

-Excessive consumption of foods such as brine and pickles

-A diet rich in flour and sugary foods

-Excessive consumption of animal foods

Breast cancer risk factors:

-Familial history of breast cancer

– Presence of benign breast disease

– Having had breast cancer before

-The age of the first menstruation is younger

-Over the age of menstruation

– Older age to give birth to the first child

-Not giving birth

-exposure to radiation

-High education and income level

-Eating foods rich in fat

Liver cancer risk factors:

-type B hepatitis virus

– contaminated with aflatoxin produced by a type of fungus called Aspergilus flavus

consumption of food

Bowel cancer risk factors:

-Eating foods rich in fat

-Excessive alcohol use

-Low consumption of pulpy foods

Uterine cancer risk factors:

-Never give birth

-Obesity

-Diabetes

-Hypertension

MOST COMMON CANCER TYPES

There is evidence to suggest that cancer is a disease that has existed almost throughout human history. Symptoms of this disease have been found in Egyptian and Inca mummies.

The detailed description of the disease dates back to ancient Greek physicians. Briefly, Hippocrates coined the term “cancer” for this disease, which is described as cells getting out of control and constantly dividing, multiplying and differentiating as a result of various factors. However, detailed knowledge on cancer was only reached in the last century.

Cancer is one of the main causes of death for people today. Looking at the statistics of developed countries, it is seen that cancer, which was the 8th leading cause of death at the beginning of the 20th century, is now the 2nd leading cause of death after heart diseases. According to the data of the World Health Organization, it is predicted that cancer will be the leading cause of death in the next 20-25 years.

Considering the difference in the structure of men and women, it is more appropriate to consider the most common cancer types in humans according to gender.

In addition to the general current problems that developing countries are experiencing, the difficulties brought by the collection of information and data are also reflected in the statistics about cancer. For this reason, such data are often given by defining developed and developing countries as information.

Although the risk of cancer in men and women according to some age groups in developed countries is different in different data, the common knowledge is that the probability of cancer incidence increases with advancing age.

Cancers seen in the top 3 ranks in men all over the world:

Prostate

Lung

Colon (Large Intestine)

Cancers seen in the top 3 ranks in women all over the world:

Breast

Colon (Large Intestine)

Lung

Cancers seen in the first 3 ranks in men in our country:

Lung

Prostate

Bladder

Cancers seen in the first 3 ranks in women in our country:

Breast

thyroid gland

Colon and rectum (Large and last bowel)

In 2012, 14.1 million new cancer patients were identified all over the world. The most common cancers are lung (1.82 million), breast (1.67 million), colon and rectum (1.36 million) cancers (GLOBOCAN, 2012).

WHAT ARE ADVANCED CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT METHODS?

In order to make the correct and effective treatment of cancer, it is necessary to diagnose and stage the cancer correctly. As the treatment methods to be applied in cancer types developing from different cells may vary, different treatment methods should be used in different stages of the same cancer type. For example, surgery is the first choice in an early-stage cancer that is limited to the region of origin, while chemotherapy-radiotherapy is used more in cancer types that have spread to distant parts of the body.

There is no single method that can accurately diagnose cancer. Complementary diagnostic methods:

1- Patient’s complaints, physical examination

2- Radiological methods

3- Laboratory tests

4- Biopsies

5- Endoscopic examinations

6- These are genetic tests.

Among these, radiology is among the branches of medicine that are most injured by technological developments. Although classical x-ray films continue to be included in the diagnosis, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) have become indispensable methods of cancer diagnosis. Thanks to “multi-slice” CTs, which can scan very quickly with the support of computer technology, whole body scans that take 20-30 minutes in standard CTs can be performed in as little as 30 seconds. The high resolution feature of multi-slice CTs can give the appearance of circulating in hollow organs such as trachea and intestines. This method, called virtual endoscopy, provides guidance in diagnosis and treatment.

It is known that tumor cells consume too much sugar. Positron emission tomography (PET), which is a method of tricking tumor cells by injecting a sugar molecule with radioactive substance into the body and visualizing them in this way, enables the determination of tumors that cannot be demonstrated by other methods.

The PET-CT image fusion method, which is created by superimposing multi-slice CT and PET images, can maximize the diagnostic sensitivity. Thus, viable tumor areas are better determined and a more accurate target is shown to be hit in radiotherapy applications.

Color Doppler ultrasonography determines tumor blood supply and marks risky areas.

Tumor markers such as PSA, PAP, CAE, CA-125, AFP, betaHCG, CA-19.9, which are defined as substances secreted from tumor cells or produced by the body against tumor cells, are important guides in diagnosis and follow-up.

Genetic tests showing the presence of tumorigenic genes or the absence of tumor suppressor genes can predict whether tumors will progress well or worse. In addition, genetic tests can provide more careful monitoring of individuals in familial cancers.

Computer-assisted technology has also led to great developments in the field of treatment. Radiotherapy, a method that has been used for about 100 years, has been the branch that has benefited most from this situation. Today, standard radiotherapies have almost been used only for supportive irradiations such as bone-brain irradiations in cancers with distant spread. Thanks to 3-dimensional conformal and its more advanced “Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)” techniques, in which 3-dimensional images of patients created using CT images are used, more doses are sent to the tumor and the surrounding tissues are protected. This is a very important point that increases the success of the treatment and reduces the side effects.

To sum up, the use of correct and appropriate diagnosis, staging and advanced treatment methods are indispensable weapons in the battle to keep cancer patients alive. It should be kept in mind that it is impossible to win wars with weapons that are not used at the appropriate time and manner.

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