Learning and Maturation: In general, elements related to maturation and learning play an important role in the child’s first language development. In order for the language to be used fluently, the child must reach a certain level of maturity and go through a qualified learning process.
Health: Speech is the creation and production of sounds through the vocal organs in the human body, and it has two basic components: phonation through the larynx and vocal cords, and articulation provided by the oral structures (tongue, palate, lips and teeth). The appropriateness of such physiological conditions is important for language development. Normal hearing perception is important for healthy language development. Hearing
It has been stated that babies with defect are separated from normal during the period of sound games between 4-8 months, they use less consonants, and the creativity in sound production decreases gradually within 4-18 months, and the attention is impaired in the baby’s language development because there is no auditory reuptake from sound games (2). Visual perception is decisive for language development, and language development of children with severe vision loss starts later than those with normal vision. Severe and long-lasting disorders affect the child’s speech negatively and cause delays.
Psychological health:If the child does not grow up in a psychologically healthy environment, problems between spouses, comparisons between siblings and the emotional needs of the child are not fully satisfied, delays and disorders in speech can be seen.
Socio-economic status: Various studies have shown that children from families with high socio-economic status are more advanced in sentence length, number of questions, and vocabulary compared to poor families. The fact that the children’s participation in play and education groups, including their peers, and the opportunities provided to encourage reading, traveling and expressing their thoughts are higher in families with good socio-cultural and socio-economic status, is associated with the earlier and smoother speech of the children raised in these families.
Encouragement to talk: Although language acquisition basically follows the same order, the pace of this development is affected by the social environment. The verbal communication that adults establish with the baby in the early period forms the basis of the learning of the baby’s mother tongue. It is reported that the richness of the environment and especially the verbal stimulus presented to the child by the mother will positively affect language development. Children who are spoken to and who show interest are encouraged to speak. Parents should talk to the baby from the moment they are born and stimulate the baby for the emergence of language capacity. When preschool children are read, allowed to watch TV, and put in playgroups, they are encouraged to talk more and their skills increase. Individual differences and gender: Each child’s capacity for speech is different from the others. At 12 months, almost all children say their first words. However, this can be very variable; some may achieve this in the eighth month, while others may not be able to do so until the 18th month. Learning to use language is a gradual process. Children in the same family may have different time to learn to speak. According to some studies, girls can learn the amount of speech, word type and grammar rules used earlier than boys.
Family baby relationships: Children who grow up in nursing homes cry more than children who grow up in families. But they spell less. Relationships between family members and good relations between the family and the baby are important factors in language development. With the hypothesis that the babies of mothers with mental disabilities are at risk in terms of language development, this group was supported by home education programs in the early period, and it was stated that increasing mother-infant interaction had a positive effect on language development.
Intelligence: Various studies show that there is a positive linear relationship between language ability and intelligence. It is claimed that the intelligence development of children who speak early is superior to others.
The game: When words or concepts are to be taught to a preschool child, they should be taught within the game. While the game affects the emotional, physical and psychomotor development of the child, it also affects the language and logic development. During the game, he learns new words, objects and their functions and concepts without noticing from his friends or adults.
Bilingualism: Children who live in environments where two different languages are spoken or who have to learn two languages initially show slower development than children who learn only one language. It is argued that young children have a keen ear for the sound and auditory characteristics of a foreign language, while individuals at older ages focus more on grammar, concept and meaning while learning a language, therefore, young children are superior in learning a second language. As a result, all babies start learning language by first learning the sounds in the language used. While the order does not change in the process that lasts from sounds to syllables, sentences and the language is fully understood, the speed of development is affected by all these factors.