Exercise and Nutrition


Physical Activity : It is an international term defined as all kinds of bodily movements that require the contraction of skeletal muscles and that provide energy expenditure above the resting level. There are 3 physical activity groups: endurance, strength and stretching.

Recreational Activities : This concept, which we also call leisure time activities, is also defined as the bodily movements performed by the contraction of skeletal muscles, which provide energy expenditure above the basal, that is, daily basic activities. This definition; gardening includes many activities such as walking, running, dancing, cycling.

Exercise : Physical activities that are planned, structured and repetitive for a purpose such as being fit, increasing physical performance, maintaining body weight control or being healthy. Exercise is also described as a planned and repetitive bodily movement performed to improve one or more components of physical activity and physical fitness. For example, walking at a certain pace for 45 minutes a day 4 days a week is an example of exercise.

Sport: Sport is a physical activity, which is a combination of the words system, performance, organization and record, performed according to certain rules for the purpose of competition.


A regular exercise program reduces the risk of chronic diseases, improves depression, anxiety and sleep patterns by positively affecting the psychological state of the person, and stimulates the release of endorphins, which are known as natural tranquilizers in the body. Endorphins also have an effect on appetite control.

The most effective method for body weight loss is to combine diet and exercise program. While exercise increases energy expenditure, it reduces the loss of lean tissue that occurs with energy-restricted diets.

Case Study


This study was conducted to examine the effect of an 8-week aerobic (run-walk) exercise program on middle-aged sedentary women on body composition and blood lipids. Subjects; It was formed from 15 volunteer-healthy sedentary women with a mean age of pre-menopause 39.13±5.41 years. The subjects participating in the study were warned not to apply any other exercise program during the study. 30-45 minutes of aerobic exercise program was applied to the subjects 3 days a week. The intensity of the exercise was determined as 40-60% by the Karvonen method. The subjects’ body weight, resting heart rate, body fat percentage and blood lipids were measured before and after the exercise program. Statistical analysis of the data was done with the pared t-test. At the end of the study, there was a significant decrease in the subjects’ body weight, resting heart rate, body fat percentages and LDL-Cholesterol compared to the pre-study, and a significant increase in HDL-Cholesterol values ​​(P<0.05). As a result, it was determined that regular and long-term aerobic exercise caused positive effects on body composition and blood lipid parameters in middle-aged women. Therefore, it can be said that this type of aerobic training is effective in terms of protection from cardiovascular risk factors and regulation of body composition.


1) Endurance Sports

2) Force/power sports

3)Team Sports


  • One of the key components of physical fitness is endurance. Endurance sports are sports branches that require long-term and low-intensity activity.

  • Sports such as 3200 m running, cross country, marathon, 2000 m rowing are examples of endurance sports.

  • endurance athletes; Ultra endurance athletes who are active between 30 minutes and 4 hours; It is defined as athletes who engage in activity for more than 4 hours.

  • Endurance is important for all athletes, whether the activity is for 1 hour or longer, or a short-term activity that requires explosive power.

  • Energy expenditure of endurance athletes; It can vary depending on the duration and severity of the activity, the gender of the athlete, age and body weight.

Carbohydrates (CHO) are very important for endurance athletes. After a long exercise, muscle glycogen stores can be depleted. The emptying of glycogen stores in the liver and muscles causes extreme fatigue. This situation is defined as “hitting a wall”. The recommended daily carbohydrate requirement is 6-10.12 g/kg/day, 60-65% of the total energy.

  • Carbohydrate consumption time before exercise varies according to the amount of food consumed by athletes and their tolerance characteristics. The general rule is to start feeding 4 hours before exercise and stop 30 minutes before (this practice does not apply to fluid consumption). 1-2 g/kg CHO can be consumed 1 hour before exercise. Carbohydrate sources with a low glycemic index should be preferred.

  • The first target during the exercise; It is a nutritional model that contains carbohydrates (30-60 g/hour) to ensure blood glucose continuity, helping to meet fluid loss. 200-250 ml of beverage containing 6-8% CHO should be consumed every 10-15 minutes. Adding protein to the beverage (CHO/PRO = 3-4/1) improves endurance performance and increases glycogen resynthesis. In many studies, it has been determined that carbohydrate drinks with added protein both increase endurance and delay the time of fatigue.

  • After exercise, 1-1.5 g/kg CHO carbohydrate should be consumed as soon as possible (within 15-30 minutes) to replenish glycogen stores and should be repeated every 2 hours for 6 hours.

Protein is an important nutrient for endurance athletes. In recent studies, it has been determined that protein oxidation and related protein need increase in endurance athletes, especially based on strength training. The recommended amount should be approximately 1.1-2.0 g/kg/day and 12-20% of the total energy. In many studies, it has been determined that consuming protein in addition to carbohydrates after exercise accelerates muscle glycogen regeneration and helps to recover muscle tissue damage.

Even if oils are used as an energy source in endurance athletes, they should be consumed moderately. Fat as an energy source; In terms of the usefulness of fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids in the body, it is important in the diet of athletes and should be at the level of 20-30% of the total energy. There are findings that oil consumption can be increased to 35% in cases where the energy requirement is too high. Studies on MCT (medium chain fatty acids) show that it delays the discharge of glycogen stores and prolongs the time of fatigue.

Vitamin-mineral requirement for all athletes is higher than for sedentary individuals and care should be taken to consume adequate amounts. Particular attention should be paid to the consumption of some vitamins and minerals (B, A, C, vitamin E, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium) for endurance athletes. In addition, antioxidant vitamins have a protective effect against free radicals formed during long-term exercises.

The decrease in plasma volume causes a decrease in aerobic performance. It is very important to provide hydration in endurance athletes, as inadequacy in fluid consumption directly affects performance negatively. For 500 g of weight lost, 450-675 ml of fluid should be consumed. Drinks containing CHO, protein, sodium and potassium (for example, sports drinks) provide more benefits.


  • The terms force and power are two concepts that are often used interchangeably. Strength is a component of strength, although both are important for physical fitness.

  • Strength is the ability of a muscle or muscle groups to strain and is measured entirely by the weight that the athlete can carry or lift.

  • Strength, on the other hand, depends not only on the degree of strain of the muscle, but also on the rate of contraction.

  • Strength/power sports are different from other sports as they require short-term and explosive power. In this group; There are sports branches such as boxing, weightlifting, discus, shot put, hammer, 100 m swimming, table tennis.

  • Strength/strength athletes aiming for weight gain; In order to ensure growth and development in muscle tissue, it should meet the energy needed in training and on the other hand, it should continue strength and conditioning training. Weight gain of more than 500-1000 g per week is not recommended. For this reason, the athlete should consume additional food containing 300-500 kcal per day for 500 g weight gain per week.

Carbohydrates are the primary fuel in strength/power sports. Consuming carbohydrates adequately during the day not only supports glycogen stores during high-intensity training and competition, but also indirectly affects the development of muscle tissues. Approximately 6-10 g/kg/day carbohydrate consumption is recommended. This amount meets approximately 55-65% of the total energy need. It should not be forgotten that the energy and carbohydrate needs of each athlete may vary and differ from each other depending on the training intensity, age, body weight and gender. The ideal time for post-activity carbohydrate consumption is 15-30 minutes after exercise. 1-1.5 g/kg CHO should be consumed as soon as possible after exercise and this application should be repeated every 2 hours, especially for the first 6 hours.

Protein and muscle tissue requirements are higher in strength/strength athletes. Sufficient high-quality protein is needed at every meal for the post-exercise repair of muscle tissue. 1.4-2.0 g/kg/day of protein should be consumed. This amount corresponds to about 15-20% of the energy. When the athlete aims to increase muscle mass, 2.5-3.0 g/kg protein is recommended together with strength training. Protein source foods should be consumed at every main and snack.

  • Studies are carried out on the anabolic effect of protein-carbohydrate consumption that increases insulin secretion and amino acid conversion before strength/strength training. It is stated that pre-exercise consumption of at least 6 g of essential amino acids and 35 g of carbohydrates helps to maintain a positive nitrogen balance.

  • Protein consumption after strength training has a positive effect by stimulating muscle protein synthesis to a large extent. The increase in protein synthesis is provided by the combination of carbohydrates (35 g) and amino acids (6 g). Therefore, carbohydrate and protein consumption should be consumed both before and after exercise to increase muscle protein synthesis. Studies have shown that the combined intake of carbohydrate and protein after exercise both reduces the decrease in blood glucose and significantly increases arterial amino acid concentration.

Fat consumption should be at a moderate level, and 20-25% of the total energy is recommended for strength/power athletes who want to maintain their body weight.

Studies on vitamin/mineral requirement are not common. It is a known fact that the need is higher in all active individuals than in sedentary individuals. The most important micronutrients are; antioxidant vitamins are calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium and zinc. In particular, there are findings that creatine supplementation increases anaerobic power in activities that require short-term explosive power lasting 6 seconds to 4 minutes.

Strength/strength athletes (such as boxing, wrestling, weightlifting and judo) try to control weight by limiting their daily fluid consumption and dehydration, as they are weight sports. This situation causes more fluid loss, and together with dehydration, the body’s heat regulation system is disrupted, mineral loss and cardiac arrhythmia are observed. Therefore, it is necessary to try to prevent dehydration in the athlete. During the activity, fluid consumption should be determined by taking into account the sweating rate / weight lost of the athlete. In a study, it was determined that milk drunk after strength training increases protein synthesis in muscle, provides positive nitrogen balance and muscle hypertrophy.


Since the training intensities among team athletes and their positions in the game will be different, carbohydrate requirements also differ. In moderate duration and low intensity training; 6-7 g / kg / day, moderate to high intensity training; 7-10 g/kg/day, in intense exercise programs (4-6 days/week); 10-12 g/kg/day carbohydrate is needed.

  • Before training and competition, a carbohydrate-rich diet not only satisfies glycogen stores, but also helps maintain blood glucose levels during activity. It is recommended to consume approximately 1-2 g/kg of carbohydrates within 2-3 hours before the game. Towards the end of the game, performance is negatively affected due to the decrease in liver glycogen stores and blood glucose levels. When carbohydrates are consumed during the game, it has been determined that the grasping ability of the athletes and the speed of the game increase.

  • When a sports drink containing 6-8% carbohydrates is consumed (200-250 ml/10-15 minutes) during the competition, both adequate hydration is provided and 30-60 g carbohydrate consumption is easily achieved.


  • At least 1.0-1.5 g/kg of carbohydrate should be consumed within the first 30 minutes after the competition and every 2 hours thereafter. In team sports that require high activity, 2.0 g/kg of carbohydrate may be required.

Protein requirement shows individual differences according to the sport branch played and the position in the game. An increase in protein requirement may occur among team athletes due to collisions and kicks during the competition, abrasions and wounds in the body. 1.2-1.7 g/kg protein consumption is recommended. It has been determined that taking approximately 6 g of essential amino acids after exercise increases muscle protein synthesis.

The recommended fat level for team athletes is similar to the recommendation for all athletes and 20-30% of the total energy should be met from fat.

Vitamin and mineral consumption should be at a sufficient level in team sports, as in other sports branches, and additional vitamin-mineral use should be applied to all athletes with the recommendation of an expert in cases where insufficiency is determined.


Most team sports are played outside the hall and are exposed to the sun, heat and humidity. In the living room, adequate ventilation is not possible due to the effect of humidity. In addition, heavy clothing, protective equipment and headgear worn in some branches cause significant heat loss and accordingly, sweating increases. In all team sports, dehydration is essential for optimal performance. Fluid consumption should be given importance not only during the game, but also before and after the game. Although the fluid requirement differs for each athlete depending on the weight lost during the activity, NATA (The National Athletic Trainers Association) generally recommends 2-3 glasses of water 2-3 hours before the competition, 1-2 cups 10-20 minutes before the competition for all athletes. water glass, and during exercise, 1-2 glasses of water or sports drink consumption every 10-15 minutes.


To meet the increased requirements of energy and macronutrients (especially carbohydrates and proteins) due to high activity level; maintaining body weight, renewing or preserving glycogen, which is the energy store in the muscles and liver, is important for the structure and repair of muscle tissue.

  • Carbohydrate: an important source of energy for muscle contractions during short-term, vigorous activities.

  • In long-term activities, CHO and fat are important sources of energy.

  • Protein usually provides 5% of the energy expended. This rate can go up to 10-15% in endurance athletes.

Carbohydrate Intake Recommendations

For the maintenance of blood glucose level, liver and muscle glycogen stores:

  • 6-10 g/kg/day (by determining the daily requirement, sport branch, gender, environmental conditions etc.)

  • 30-60 g/kg/hour during endurance activities

  • 1-1.5 g/kg should be consumed immediately after intense activity.

Protein Intake Recommendations

Protein intake is very important for growth, tissue repair, enzyme and hormone synthesis.

  • Sedentary: 0.8g/kg/day (If FA is applied, it may change as 1g/kg/day, may increase)

  • Those interested in endurance and strength sports: 1.2-1.7g/kg/day

  • Vegetarian athletes: 1.3g/kg/day

IOC(international olympic committee):

  • Protein taken in excess of the requirement does not provide additional benefit.

  • It increases amino acid catabolism and protein oxidation.

  • If fat loss and muscle tissue increase are aimed:

  • hypoenergetic diet

  • Special training program

  • 3-4g/kg/day CHO and 1.8-2.7g/kg/day protein

  • After exercise, protein should be taken for muscle protein synthesis.

ACSM (American Sports Medicine Association)

  • The amount of protein should be increased before exercise. (No special recommendation)

  • Increase adequate CHO, energy, fluid and electrolyte consumption after exercise.

ISSN (International Association of Sports Nutrition)

  • It recommends 0.15-0.25g/kg protein + 1.2g/kg CHO 3-4 hours before exercise.

  • It recommends CHO(3-4g/kg) + protein(1g/kg) after exercise.

Fat Recommendations

When fat is consumed adequately in the diet:

  • Essential fatty acids are taken.

  • Fat-soluble vitamins are taken.

  • The energy required to maintain body weight is provided.

  • It is not suitable for consumption to fall below 20%. (between 20-35% is ideal)


People who want to lose body weight and fat 0.5-1 g/kg/day fat.


Fat ratio should not be less than 15-20%; No more than 30%, otherwise CHO intake will decrease.

Fluid Consumption Recommendations

In order to be hydrated, it is important to consume enough fluids before, during and after exercise. Like this:

  • The blood-glucose level is maintained.

  • Performance increase and rapid recovery are provided.

To prevent dehydration:

  • Body weight loss should not be more than 2%. It negatively affects performance.

  • Before exercise: 5-7ml/kg/2-4 hours

  • Exercise sequence: up to sweat loss

  • After exercise: 450-650 ml of fluid should be consumed for 0.5 kg of sweat loss.

Pre-Exercise Nutrition

  • To empty the stomach, the meal should be consumed 3-4 hours before the competition.

Meal consumed 3-4 hours before exercise:

  • It should contain 200-350 g of carbohydrates.

  • To avoid gastrointestinal distress, the carbohydrate and calorie content of the meal consumed should be reduced as the race approaches.

  • For example, if 4 g/kg of carbohydrates are consumed 4 hours before exercise, 1 g/kg of carbohydrates should be consumed 1 hour before.

  • The pre-exercise meal can be consumed as a main meal or a snack.

For example, a snack to be consumed 1-1.5 hours before exercise;

  • Provides 100-300 kcal of energy

  • Containing moderate protein (50g)

  • Contains little fat

  • Most importantly, it should be a meal rich in complex carbohydrates containing vitamins and minerals.

Nutrition During Exercise

  • The main reason for nutrient consumption during exercise is to provide the carbohydrates necessary to compensate for fluid losses and maintain blood glucose levels.

  • Foods containing 30-60 g of carbohydrates should be consumed every hour (240 ml sports drink contains 14-24 grams).

  • Consuming carbohydrates during performance:

  • The athlete did not load carbohydrates.

  • No pre-exercise meals

  • Insufficient fluid and nutrients before exercise

  • Restricted energy for weight loss

  • It becomes even more important when exercising in extreme conditions (such as hot, cold, high altitude).

  • Snacks containing 50 g of carbohydrates:

  • 500ml juice

  • 3 medium fruits

  • 1 slice of honey bread

  • 1 baked potato

  • 1 sports bar (check label)

  • 80 g dried fruit

  • 1 bowl of boiled rice

Post-Exercise Nutrition

  • The glycogen stores in the muscles are emptied after 1.5-2 hours of exercise.

  • Nutritional intake after exercise is very important for the rapid resynthesis of muscle and liver glycogen, which is the fuel tank for the next workout.

  • After an intense exercise, the organism continues to use its fuel stores due to the presence of circulating adrenaline.

  • With food consumption, insulin secretion is stimulated and the released insulin inhibits the effect of adrenaline and facilitates the rapid resynthesis of glycogen.

  • There is a state of equilibrium in the organism.

  • In addition, considering that after each competition or training is the beginning of the next competition and training, the importance of the recovery period can be better understood.

  • The most effective way to replenish the empty stores is to consume high-carbohydrate foods in the first 2 hours after exercise.

  • Hourly after exercise, only 5% of the muscle glycogen used during competition or competition is resynthesized.

  • Accordingly, after an intense competition or exercise, at least 20 hours and approximately 600 g carbohydrate consumption is required for the re-synthesis of glycogen.

  • Consumption of carbohydrates immediately after exercise allows glycogen stores to recover in a shorter time than starting to consume carbohydrates 2 hours later.

  • When 2g/kg of carbohydrate is consumed immediately afterwards, muscle glycogen synthesis is 15 mmol/kg.

  • After 2 hours, that is, when carbohydrate is consumed, muscle glycogen synthesis decreases by 66% and the synthesis falls to 5 mmol/kg.

  • When fed 4 hours later, total muscle glycogen synthesis is 45% slower than when fed immediately after exercise.

  • In order to replenish muscle glycogen stores, the athlete should be advised to consume 1-2 g/kg of carbohydrates after performance and repeat every hour for 4 hours.


  • Whole grain bread with molasses, jam, honey, peanut butter

  • Cheese Sandwich-Toast

  • Turkey Sandwich

  • Wasa/Cracker/Etimek

  • Low-fat milk, yogurt

  • Oats with low-fat milk

  • Fruit salad

  • Fruit-Vegetable smoothie

  • Fresh fruit

  • Squeezed juice

  • Handful of walnuts, almonds, peanuts


  • Grilled chicken sandwich, baked potato-vegetable, fruit salad

  • Vegetable Wrap, Baked Potato, Squeezed Fruit Juice

  • Boiled/grilled chicken, vegetable garnish, rice, compote

  • Smoked turkey, whole grain bread, soup, fresh fruit

  • Baked vegetables, rice, kidney beans, green salad, fruit salad, low-fat yogurt


  • Pasta with tomato sauce, steamed vegetables, green salad, cheese or yogurt

  • Vegetable pizza, salad, squeezed fruit juice

  • Peas, rice, salad, tzatziki, fruit

  • Grilled fish, green salad, steamed vegetables, baked potato, iced tea


  • Whole grain bread and peanut butter

  • Fresh fruit

  • Cracker

  • Whole grain crackers and turkey slices

  • Fat free popcorn

  • Peanuts, almonds, hazelnuts

  • Cheese + Crackers

  • sports bars


  • 1 hour or more before exercise;

    • Fresh fruit, eg; peeled apple, peach, grape, banana

    • sports bars

    • sports drinks

  • 2-3 hours before exercise;

    • Fresh fruit, vegetables or juices

    • Bread, crackers, fat-free cake, low-fat cheese, low-fat yogurt, flatbread, sports bars

    • sports drinks

  • 3-4 hours before exercise;

    • Fresh fruit, vegetables or juices

    • Bread, crackers, baked potatoes, cereal mix with milk, low-fat yogurt, lean meat and cheese sandwich types, pasta with tomato sauce

    • sports drinks


some time before the game

Just before the match

during the match

after the match

2-3 hours ago

Consume 500-750 ml of fluid

Drink 250 ml of liquid 10-30 minutes ago

Drink 250 ml of fluid every 15 minutes

Consume 500 ml of fluid for every ½ kg of loss

Athlete’s Plate on Intensive Training and Race Day

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