Examining the effects of child abuse prevention program

The importance given to research and prevention studies on child sexual abuse has increased in the late twenty-first century. Although there is an increase in the number of prevention studies in this sense, it is seen that the studies in the field are limited in our country. In this study, it was aimed to examine the effectiveness of the child sexual abuse prevention program. In the study, it was studied with 30 children attending the 2nd grade. 53.4% ​​(n=16) of the participants were male and 46.6% (n=14) were female. 46.6% (n=14) of the sample consisted of education and 53.4% ​​(n=16) of the comparison group. Participants in both groups were found to come from low-middle-income families with parents with low-middle-level education. In order to evaluate the side effects of the program, a parent information form for the parents of the participants and a teacher information form for the teachers were used. As a result of Wilcoxon Signed Orders Test, which was applied in line with the information received from teachers and parents, it was stated that children’s behaviors and fears did not change after education, and the majority of parents did not observe any changes in their children’s sleep and eating behaviors, as well as in physical and other issues after education. In addition, the majority of parents (93.3%) in both groups stated that they wanted their children to attend similar trainings again. These results are discussed considering the strengths and limitations of the study.

Keywords: sexual abuse, prevention, effectiveness

Abstract

Attention to research and prevention studies on child sexual abuse has increased in the late 21st century. In this sense, although the number of prevention studies has increased, it is observed that the studies in this area have been limited in our country. In this study, it was aimed to examine the effectiveness of sexual abuse prevention program for children. The study was conducted with 30 children who continue to work at the 2nd Survey. 53.4% ​​(n = 16) of the participants were male and 46% (n = 14) of the females. 46.6% of the sample (n = 14) and 53.4% ​​of the experiment (n = 16) constitute the control group. Participants in both groups came from low-middle income families with parents with low to moderate education. Parental information form for the parents of the participants and teacher information form for the teachers were used to evaluate the side effects of the program. The Wilcoxon Signed Sequence Test, conducted on the basis of information from teachers and parents, indicated that children’s behavior and fear did not change after training, and that a large majority of parents did not observe any changes in their children’s sleeping and eating behavior, as well as physical and other aspects, after the training. In addition, a large majority (93.3%) of the parents in both groups stated that they wanted children to participate in such training again. These outcomes have been discussed with regard to the strengths and limitations of the research.

LOGIN

Child abuse is a legal, medical, psycho-social and developmental problem with complex causes and tragic consequences (Kara et al., 2004). According to the definition made by the World Health Organization, child abuse; It is defined as behaviors that are done intentionally or unintentionally by an adult and that negatively affect or risk affecting the child’s health, physical and psycho-social development. child abuse; It is considered as the application of physical, sexual and emotional violence against the child (Polat, 2007).

1. Types of Child Abuse

Child abuse is evaluated as physical, emotional and sexual abuse.

1.1 Physical Abuse

In its broadest definition, physical abuse is defined as non-accidental injury to the child and violence against the child. Physical abuse, which is easier to detect than other types of abuse, is the most common type of abuse in our country, where beating is used as a discipline tool (Polat, 2007).

1.2 Emotional Abuse

It is the situation where the child is exposed to attitudes and behaviors that affect him/her by the person or persons who have power over the child, usually the person or persons around him/her, and psychological damage according to social and scientific standards (Kara et al., 2004).

1.3 Sexual Abuse

child sexual abuse; It is the most difficult to detect among the types of child abuse. There are many definitions of the concept of child sexual abuse and this causes certain confusions (Polat, 2007). According to the definition published by the American National Center for Child Abuse and Neglect on its official website in 2017, child sexual abuse is; It is defined as forcing and persuading a child to participate in sexual activities. According to the definition of the World Health Organization, sexual abuse; It is defined as the use of a child under the age of 18 for sexual activities under unequal coercive conditions (WHO, 2016).

1.3.1 Child Sexual Abuse Epidemiology

The first studies on the frequency and prevalence of sexual abuse on a community basis were made in the USA in the 1950s. The first statistics on the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the population began to be collected in the 1970s (Topçu, 2009). Although the prevalence of child sexual abuse varies, according to the Global Estimates of Child Abuse published by the World Health Organization on its official website in 2014, the lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse was found to be 7.6% in men and 18% in women (WHO, 2016). In 2016, the report on child abuse prepared by the Emergency Violence Prevention Association & Acıbadem University Combating Crime and Violence Research Center includes the results of the research report on negative life experiences in childhood in Turkey, prepared by the World Health Organization and Ankara University. According to these results, 7.2% of men and 8.7% of women in Turkey stated that they were sexually abused in their childhood. According to the ‘Child Abuse and Domestic Violence Research in Turkey’ report, which compiled the results of the work carried out by UNICEF and the Prime Ministry Social Services and Child Protection Agency in 2008; It has been reported that 10% of children between the ages of 7-18 living in Turkey witnessed sexual abuse and 3% were exposed to sexual abuse (UNICEF & SHÇEK, 2010). 9.10, which was randomly selected in a 2006 study in the province of Istanbul, the first reported school-based study to determine the prevalence of sexual abuse in Turkey. A questionnaire study was applied to female students attending 11th and 11th grades. The results of the study showed that 13.4% of 1871 students who were surveyed and answered questions about unwanted sexual experience reported sexual harassment, 11.3% of them were exposed to bad touch and 93% of them were male perpetrators (Alikaşifoğlu et al., 2006). .

1.3.2 Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Studies

The facts revealed by the researches on child sexual abuse made us think that the studies to be done should focus on the prevention of sexual abuse. When the current statistics in the world and in our country are evaluated, efforts to prevent child sexual abuse are of great importance. Since the 1980s, prevention studies on this issue have started to accelerate (Büyükgönenç and Koçak, 2011; Topçu, 2009). It is seen that the studies to prevent child sexual abuse are carried out at primary, secondary and tertiary levels.

Primary prevention: It covers the studies carried out for children who have not been abused before in areas such as schools where formal education is given (Rezan Çeçen, 2007; Ögel, 2005).

Secondary Prevention: It covers the studies carried out to determine the risk factors and groups in terms of sexual abuse, to identify the problems experienced by the child who is the victim of sexual abuse after this process, to reduce the possibility of repetition of abuse, to ensure the safety of the child and to regain the functionality of the child (Rezan Çeçen, 2007; Institute for Work&Health). , 2015; Kır, 2013).

Tertiary Prevention: It is the studies carried out to reduce the short and long-term effects that may occur in the child who is the victim of sexual abuse, to eliminate the permanent results of the victimization, to eliminate the conditions that cause sexual abuse and to put the victim in therapy at the clinical level (Rezan Çeçen, 2007; ATSA, 2017).

Community education is the basis of prevention studies. Because only the information to be made for parents and all members of the society will be the first step. The person who is informed about the subject will have the chance to evaluate himself and his environment in case of such a problem (Polat, 2007). Schools, which are formal education institutions, have an important place in the prevention of child sexual abuse. In many countries around the world, certain education programs are organized for school children in order to prevent child sexual abuse. The main goal of these programs is to provide children with information that will enable them to protect themselves from possible sexual abuse (Topçu, 2009).

Müller, Röder, and Fingerle (2014) developed a web-based program to prevent sexual abuse in children in their study. Before and after participating in the web-based training, which they called ‘Cool and Safe’, the children were asked questions about their knowledge, behavioral intentions, emotional awareness and concerns. The results showed that the training improves knowledge and develops safe behavioral strategies. In addition, it was determined that the hiding of emotions in the children participating in the education was less than the comparison group, and no increase in anxiety was detected in the children of the education group. Gibson and Leitenberg (2000) surveyed 825 undergraduate students from a New England public university and asked participants about their history of childhood sexual abuse and participation in preschool prevention programs. While 62% of the sample reported that they participated in a sexual abuse prevention program at school and 8% of those who participated in this program were exposed to sexual abuse after the program, the rate of sexual abuse was found to be 14% for those who did not participate in any prevention program before. Tutty (1997) evaluated the effectiveness of the sexual abuse prevention program for primary school children and found that the program was effective on children’s knowledge of sexual abuse. According to the pre-test and post-test results of the project on the prevention of child abuse, which was started in Northern Italy in the 2000-2001 academic year and reached more than twenty thousand students, the children participating in the program significantly increased their self-efficacy and ability to cope with a situation at risk, and they had a negative experience. It has been determined that their capacity to ask for help increases when they encounter emotion (Pellai, 2008). In a study conducted by Chen, Dunne, and Han (2007), it was found that 95% of the participants wanted sexual abuse prevention programs to be included in schools and that they had a positive view of their children’s participation in these programs.

Although studies are carried out to prevent child sexual abuse in our country, this situation is not sufficient. In a study conducted by Yalın, Kerimoğlu and Erman in 1995, parents’ views on the sexual abuse prevention program given to pre-school children aged 3-6 and their parents were examined. 33% of 256 parents who participated in the study reported that they could talk about sexual abuse and its concepts with their children (Kır, 2013; Çeçen, 2007; Yalın, Kerimoğlu, & Erman, 1995). In our country, prevention studies on the concept of child sexual abuse, which has started to attract more attention through the media, are also accelerating. For this purpose, there are many associations in our country such as Partnership Network to Prevent Violence Against Children, Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Association, Child and Information Security Association, Child Abuse Association, Help Association. trainings are given to teachers, various brochures are prepared for the purpose of recognizing and preventing sexual abuse, and congresses are held.

In order to prevent sexual abuse, programs are implemented in various schools around the world. However, the situation in our country is not so encouraging. Kır (2013) in a study in which he compiled sexual abuse and preventive education programs for children, in the interviews he held with the guidance teachers working under the Ministry of National Education, stated that the studies in this field were started as of the 2009-2010 academic year, and in this context, the abuse against the parents of the students starting the 1st grade. It has been learned that the guidance teachers who work in schools from time to time give training on sexual abuse to children during the guidance lesson hours. In this study, the opinions of teachers and administrators were taken. Among the opinions obtained, it was seen that there were incorrect and incomplete information that sexual abuse was committed only by a man, that if the child consented, it would not be considered as sexual abuse, that the child could not be understood from the symptoms without seeing the abuse personally. It has been concluded that they do not know the legal procedure to be applied against them. Considering the prevalence of child sexual abuse in our country and prevention studies, there is a need for new prevention studies to be developed.

In the child abuse prevention study conducted by Adalı (2007), children in the 3rd, 4th and 5th grades of primary school and their parents were taken as samples and the participant children were given training on the subject. As a result of the study, it was concluded that there was a positive change in the views on protection from abuse as a result of the education given to the children. In another study by Akgiray (2007), according to the results of the prevention study conducted for 42 children and 42 parents attending the 2nd, 3rd and 4th grades, it was seen that informing, which is one of the methods of preventing abuse, increases the knowledge about abuse and is effective in preventing abuse.

1.3.3 Effectiveness of Prevention Programs

In the study conducted by MacIntry and Carr (1999), in which the effectiveness of the Stay Safe sexual abuse prevention study was examined, it was concluded that there was no negative change in children’s self-esteem, knowledge and attitudes of parents and teachers about sexual abuse, on the contrary, these values ​​increased. In another study conducted by Öztürk and Siyez (2015), in which the effectiveness of the sexual education program for 6th grade students in primary education was evaluated, it was revealed that there was a positive change in the knowledge of sexuality of the students who participated in the sexual education program. In the study conducted by Çeçen and Hasırcı (2013), in which the effectiveness of the sexual abuse prevention psycho-education program developed for primary school primary school students was tested, it was determined that the post-test results of the students receiving psycho-education differed significantly. has been observed.

In a study conducted by Irmak, Aksel, Kızıltepe, Güngör, and Eslek (2017), the effectiveness of the I’m learning protection from abuse program with Mika was studied and it was examined whether the program had any negative effects on children. Findings show that the education offered does not increase children’s anxiety and fears and does not have a negative effect.

Considering that there are studies to prevent sexual abuse in our country, but not at a sufficient level, it is thought that new prevention studies to be carried out in schools will be effective in preventing sexual abuse. With this study, it is aimed to examine whether the sexual abuse prevention psycho-education program applied to children in the 2nd grade of primary school has a negative effect on children.

2. METHOD

2.1 Participants

A quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest comparison group was used in this study, which aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the sexual abuse prevention program for children attending the 2nd grade. The sample of the study consists of a total of 30 participants, 16 males and 14 females, from the age group of 7-8, low and middle socio-economic level, attending primary school in the 2017-2018 academic year. Classes were divided into two groups as training group and comparison group by random assignment. The socio-demographic information of the participants is presented in Table-1.

2.2 Data Collection Tools

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the sexual abuse prevention program on children; Demographic Information Form, Parent Information Form and Teacher Information Form were used.

2.2.1 Demographic Information Form

In the form prepared by the researchers, questions about the demographic characteristics of the children such as gender, age, education period, number of siblings, birth order and questions about the age, education and income levels of the parents were also included.

2.2.2 Parent Information Form

The Parent Information Form, which was prepared to evaluate the negative effects of the prevention program on children such as nightmares, fear and anxiety, and the positive effects of talking about their feelings, consists of 18 items. A 5-point likert was used in the form. (0: none, 4: more than 10 times)

2.2.3 Teacher Information Form:

The form prepared to evaluate the behaviors and fears of the participants in the school environment consists of 16 questions. The form in which the number of behaviors occurring in the school environment was determined was prepared using a 5-point likert.

2.3 Transaction Path

Necessary permissions were obtained from Ege University Scientific Research and Ethics Committee for the application. In a primary school determined in Kemalpaşa district of İzmir province, the administrators of the institutions were interviewed and suitable days and hours were determined for the application. An information meeting was held for the parents of the children in the education and comparison group, information was given about the content and purpose of the program, and written informed consent was obtained from the parents who gave consent, and the parent information form and demographic information form were distributed for the pre-test measurements. In the same way, the teacher information form was distributed to the teachers of the children of both groups who will participate in the program, and pre-test data were obtained before the training. Before the training, verbal permission was obtained from the participating children and the implementation of the program was started. The applied program lasted for two days over two course hours in the morning and two course hours in the afternoon. Post-test measurements were taken simultaneously from the parents and teachers of the children in the education and comparison groups after the prevention program was over. After the post-test measurements were taken, sexual abuse prevention training was given to the comparison group.

2.4 Content of the Training Program

The content of this prevention program;

⦁ I know my rights, what are my rights as a child,

⦁ Recognizing emotions, distinguishing between pleasant and unpleasant emotions

⦁ Understanding which events will cause what kind of emotions

⦁ Getting to know my body, knowing where the private parts are

⦁ Ability to protect private areas and body

⦁ Distinguish between good touch and bad touch

⦁ Learning how to react to bad touch, learning to say no

⦁ To learn the difference between good secret and bad secret

⦁ It has been created to include learning how to get help in the face of bad secret situation and to inform an adult. In the content of the program, while explaining the subject of let’s get to know our body, male and female puppets, coloring papers for good touch-bad touch, drama technique, songs and visuals for good secret-bad secret were used.

3. FINDINGS

In this section, the findings of the study conducted to examine the effectiveness of the child sexual abuse prevention program will be presented. Data will be presented, firstly on socio-demographic information, secondly on the effectiveness of education, and finally on examining information from parents and teachers to assess whether the program has had a negative impact on children.

3.1 Socio-Demographic Information of Participants

The socio-demographic information of the children participating in the study is given in Table 1.

Table 1.

Socio-demographic information about the children participating in the study.

Education Comparison

Gender

Women 50 7 43.8 7

Male 50 7 56.3 9

Number of siblings

Single Child 14.3 2 6.3 1

1 71.4 10 81.3 13

2 7.1 1 12.5 2

3 7.1 1

Birth Order

1 57.1 8 68.8 11

2 28.6 4 31.3 5

3 0 0 0 0 0

4 7.1 1 0 0

Total Training Time

Second Year 100 14 100 10

3.2 Socio-demographic Information of Participants’ Parents

Socio-demographic data regarding the parents of the children participating in the study are given in Table 2.

Table 2.

Socio-demographic distribution of the parents of the children participating in the study.

Education Comparison

Mother’s Age % n % N

20-29 35.7 5 43.8 7

30-39 57.1 8 56.2 9

40-49 7.1 1 0 0

Father’s Age

20-29 7.1 1 6.3 1

30-39 71.4 10 87.5 14

40-49 21.4 3 6.3 1

Mother’s Education

No School Education 0 0 6.3 1

Primary School 35.7 5 68.8 11

Secondary School 14.3 2 31.3 5

High School 35.7 5 0 0

College 7.1 1 0 0

University 7.1 1 0 0

Father’s Education

Primary school 14.3 2 18.8 3

Secondary School 50 7 43.8 7

High school 14.3 2 37.5 6

High school 0 0 0 0

University 21.4 3 0 0

Total Revenue

0-2000 71.4 10 56.3 9

2001-4000 28.6 4 37.5 6

4001-6000 0 0 6.3 1

As seen in Table 1, 50% of the participants in the training group were female (n = 7), 50% were male (n = 7) and in the comparison group 56% were male (n = 9) and 44% were female ( n = 7). 71% (n = 10) and 81% (n = 13) of the participants in the training group and comparison group, respectively, had a sibling, and at birth 57% (n = 8) and 69% (n = 11) respectively. are in the first place. In addition, the total training period of all participants in both groups is two years.

The ages of the parents of the participants were mostly between 30-39 years of age in both groups. In both groups, the education of the mothers of the participants is mostly at the primary school level, and the education of the fathers is at the secondary school level. When the income distribution of the parents is examined, it is seen that their income is mostly between 0-2000 TL and between 0-6000 TL. In the light of this information, it was seen that the participants in both groups came from low-middle-income families with parents with low-medium level education.

3.3 Findings on the Effects of the Training Program

The effects of the program on the children in the education group, whether the children’s parents and teachers’ statements after the education differed in the pre-test and post-test were tested with the Wilcoxon Signed Orders Test.

3.3.1 Findings Regarding the Reports Received from Teachers

At this stage of the program, the observations of the teachers of the participants in the training group about whether there was any change in the behaviors of their students and their fears towards certain objects after the training were examined. The findings of these behaviors and fears are given in Table 3 and Table 4, respectively.

Table 3

Wilcoxon Signed Orders Test Findings of Teacher Observations for the Behaviors of Participants in the Training Group

n Rank Mean Rank Sum

anger behavior

Negative Sort 1 1.00 1.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 13

easy cry

Negative Sort 3 2.00 6.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 11

say you like your body

Negative Ranking 3 2.67 8.00

Positive Sequence 1 2.00 2.00

same 10

Reluctance to participate in activities

Negative Sort 3 2.00 6.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 11

reluctance to come to school

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 14

talking about their feelings

Negative Ranking 4 3.13 12.50

Positive Sequence 1 2.50 2.50

same 9

To produce constructive solutions to the problems he has with his friends

Negative Sort 6 5.50 33.00

Positive Sequence 3 4.00 12.00

same 5

being rude to strangers

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 14

talk about sexuality

Negative Sort 1 1.00 1.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 13

Disobedience

Negative Sort 1 1.00 1.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 13

Table 4

Wilcoxon Signed Orders Test Findings of Teacher Observations for Fear of Certain Objects of Participants in the Training Group

n Rank Mean Rank Sum

Animal Fear

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Sequence 1 1.00 1.00

same 13

Adults he doesn’t know

Negative Sort 1 1.00 1.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 13

Be alone

Negative Sort 1 1.00 1.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 13

Participation in activities

Negative Ranking 2 2.25 4.50

Positive Sequence 1 1.50 1.50

same 14

separation from parent

Negative Sort 1 1.00 1.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 13

break up with your teacher

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 14

As a result of Wilcoxon Signed Orders Test, it was found that the behaviors and fears of the participants in the training group did not differ from the pretest to the posttest.

Table 5 and Table 6 present the results for the comparison group regarding whether the behaviors of the participants observed by the teachers and their fear of certain objects differ between the pretest and posttest.

Table 5

Wilcoxon Signed Orders Test Findings of Teacher Observations for the Behaviors of Participants in the Comparison Group

n Rank Mean Rank Sum

anger behavior

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 16

easy cry

Negative Sort 1 1.00 1.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 15

say you like your body

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 16

Reluctance to participate in activities

Negative Sort 1 1.00 1.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 15

reluctance to come to school

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 16

talking about their feelings

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 16

To produce constructive solutions to the problems with his friends

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 16

being rude to strangers

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 16

talk about sexuality

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 16

Disobedience

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 16

Table 6

Wilcoxon Signed Orders Test Findings of Teacher Observations for Fear of Certain Objects of Participants in the Comparison Group

N Rank Mean Rank Sum

Animal Fear

Negative Sequence 2 1.50 3.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 14

Adults he doesn’t know

Negative Sort 1 1.00 1.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 15

Be alone

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 16

Participation in activities

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 16

separation from parent

Negative Sort 1 1.00 1.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 15

break up with your teacher

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 16

As a result of the Wilcoxon Signed Orders Test, it was revealed that there was no difference between the pre-test and post-test in the various behaviors and fears of the participants in the comparison group.

3.3.2 Findings Regarding the Information Received from the Parents of the Participants

Apart from the teachers of the participants, information about some of the behaviors and fears of the participants was obtained from their parents, and whether these changed after the training was examined with the Wilcoxon Signed Orders Test.

The findings regarding the various behaviors and fears of the participants are presented in Table 7 and Table 8, respectively, for the training group, and Table 9 and Table 10, respectively, for the comparison group.

Table 7

Wilcoxon Signed Orders Test Findings of Parental Observations for the Behaviors of Participants in the Training Group

n Rank Mean Rank Sum

anger behavior

Negative Sort 3 2.00 6.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 11

easy cry

Negative Sort 3 2.00 6.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 11

Expressing that you like your body

Negative Sort 1 2.50 2.50

Positive Sequence 4 3.13 12.50

same 8

have nightmares

Negative Ranking 2 2.25 4.50

Positive Sequence 1 1.50 1.50

same 11

reluctance to school

Negative Sequence 2 1.50 3.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 12

talking about their feelings

Negative Sort 1 2.00 2.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 12

wetting the bed

Negative Sort 1 1.00 1.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 13

being rude to strangers

Negative Sort 3 2.50 7.50

Positive Sequence 1 2.50 2.50

same 8

talk about sexuality

Negative Sort 2 2.00 4.00

Positive Sequence 1 2.00 2.00

same 11

Disobedience

Negative Ranking 3 3.50 10.50

Positive Sequence 3 3.50 10.50

same 8

Table 8

Wilcoxon Signed Orders Test Findings of Parental Observations for Fear of Certain Objects of Participants in the Training Group

n Rank Mean Rank Sum

animals

Negative Ranking 2 1.5 3.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 14

Adults he doesn’t know

Negative Sort 1 2.50 2.50

Positive Sequence 3 2.50 7.50

same 12

To sleep

Negative Ranking 4 3.13 12.50

Positive Sequence 1 2.50 2.50

same 11

Relatives

Negative Sort 1 1.00 1.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 15

being alone in the dark

Negative Ranking 4 3.13 12.50

Positive Sequence 1 2.50 2.50

same 10

separation from parent

Negative Sort 1 4.00 4.00

Positive Sequence 4 2.75 11.00

same 11

break up with your teacher

Negative Sort 1 2.00 2.00

Positive Sequence 2 2.00 4.00

same 13

taking a bath

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 16

Table 9

Wilcoxon Signed Orders Test Findings of Parental Observations for the Behaviors of Participants in the Comparison Group

n Rank Mean Rank Sum

anger behavior

Negative Sort 3 2.00 6.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 13

easy cry

Negative Sort 3 2.50 7.50

Positive Sequence 2 3.75 7.50

same 11

Expressing that you like your body

Negative Sort 3 4.00 12.00

Positive Sequence 3 3.00 9.00

same 10

have nightmares

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Sequence 3 2.00 6.00

same 13

reluctance to school

Negative Rank 1 1.50 1.50

Positive Sequence 2 2.25 4.50

same 13

talking about their feelings

Negative Ranking 7 5.79 40.50

Positive Sequence 4 6.38 25.50

same 5

wetting the bed

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 16

being rude to strangers

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Sequence 1 1.00 1.00

same 15

talk about sexuality

Negative Rank 1 1.50 1.50

Positive Sequence 1 1.50 1.50

same 14

Disobedience

Negative Ranking 6 5.25 31.50

Positive Sequence 3 4.50 13.50

same 7

Table 10

Wilcoxon Signed Orders Test Findings of Parental Observations for Fear of Certain Objects in Comparison Group Participants

n Rank Mean Rank Sum

animals

Negative Ranking 2 1.5 3.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 12

Adults he doesn’t know

Negative Sequence 2 1.50 3.00

Positive Sequence 1 3.00 3.00

same 11

To sleep

Negative Ranking 2 2.25 4.50

Positive Sequence 1 1.50 1.50

same 10

Relatives

Negative Sort 1 1.00 1.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 13

being alone in the dark

Negative Sort 2 3.25 6.50

Positive Sequence 2 1.75 3.50

same 10

separation from parent

Negative Sort 3 2.50 7.50

Positive Sequence 1 2.50 2.50

same 10

break up with your teacher

Negative Sort 1 1.00 1.00

Positive Ranking 0.00 .00

same 13

taking a bath

Negative Ranking 0.00 .00

Positive Sequence 1 1.00 1.00

same 13

As a result of the analysis, it was seen that the various behaviors and fears of the participants in the training and comparison group did not differ from the pre-test to the post-test in line with the knowledge of the parents. Apart from the above-mentioned observations, the parents of the participants were asked whether they observed any changes in their children’s behaviors at the end of the training and whether they wanted to encourage their children to participate in such trainings again, and the findings are presented in Table 11.

Table 11

Percentages of some observations of parents about their children after education

Education Comparison

Change in sleep pattern % n % N

Yes 14.3 2 18.8 3

No 85.7 12 81.3 13

change in eating pattern

Yes 0 0 18.8 3

No 100 14 81.3 13

physical changes

Yes 7.1 1 0 0

No 85.7 12 100 16

Other Changes

Yes 0 0 6.3 1

No 100 14 93.8 15

Talking About Birth

Yes 7.1 1 12.5 2

No 92.9 13 87.5 14

Talking About Private Territory

Yes 50 7 37.5 6

No 50 7 62.5 10

Talking About Strangers

Yes 71.4 10 81.3 13

No 28.6 4 18.8 3

Talking About Sexuality

Yes 0 0 6.3 1

No 100 14 93.8 15

Re-Engagement

Yes 92.9 13 93.8 15

No 7.1 1 6.3 1

As seen in Table 11, the majority of parents stated that they did not observe any changes in their children’s sleeping and eating behaviors, as well as in physical and other issues, after the education. On the other hand, they observed that the participants in both the training and comparison groups spoke more frequently about the private region and about foreigners. Most of the parents in both groups stated that they wanted their children to participate in similar trainings again.

However, the Fisher Exact test was used to examine whether the variables in Table 11 changed depending on the group of participants (education and comparison), and no significant relationship was found between the groups of participants in any of the variables.

4. DISCUSSION

The aim of this study is to examine whether the prevention program developed for the protection of children in the 2nd grade of primary school from sexual abuse has effects on the children in the education and comparison group, and whether the statements of the parents and teachers of the children differ in the pre-test and post-test after the education. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained for this purpose, there was no difference in the behavior and fears of the children in the education and comparison group after the prevention program in terms of pre-test and post-test, there was no differentiation in the sleep, eating and other physical behaviors of the children, as a result, the prevention program had a negative effect on the children. it has been found that it is not.

This prevention program also appears to have some positive effects. In line with some of the information received from the parents of the participants, it was stated that the children in both the education and comparison groups were more likely to talk about the ‘private region’ and ‘foreigners’.

The number of studies on the effectiveness of sexual abuse in our country is limited. In this study, even if it was proven that the prevention program did not have a negative effect, the small number of samples used reduces the generalizability of the results. One of the limitations of the study is that the measurement tools were developed by the researchers of another prevention study called ‘I am Protected from Abuse with Mica’ and validity and reliability studies were not conducted. Secondly, although an information meeting was held for the parents of the students in the school where the program will be implemented, it was observed that the teachers of the participants had difficulties in the implementation of the program and the complete evaluation of the distributed forms.

In future studies, it will be beneficial to use the forms whose validity and reliability studies have been conducted, to increase the number of samples, to ensure the participation of participants from different socio-economic levels, and to inform the teachers of the participants before the training.

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