The endometrial tissue, which should normally only be on the inner surface of the uterus, is found outside the uterus. endometriosis is named. Depending on the location, it is called adenomyosis if it is seen in the uterine wall, and if it occurs in the ovaries as cysts filled with melted blood, it is called endometrioma (chocolate cyst).
In endometriosis, the endometrial cells located outside the uterus develop with the effect of hormones every month and are shed with some bleeding, just like the ones inside the uterus.
While the bleeding inside the uterus is expelled through the vagina, the bleeding in the cells outside the uterus damages the surrounding tissues. In fact, it can settle in any organ or region of the body and give findings accordingly. In most of these, women have bleeding that occurs with menstruation.
Basically, female reproductive organs are involved and affected. In endometriosis, patients most commonly complain of painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea). Infertility is the most important reason for patients with endometriosis to apply.
Adhesions and hardening caused by the tubes or the endometrium tissue that settles around it reduce the movement of the tubes, resulting in infertility. It is thought that endometriosis tissue, which settles in the ovaries and causes adhesions, may impair the maturation of the egg cell and thus lead to infertility.
Generally, laparoscopy is both the most important diagnosis and the most important treatment method. With laparoscopy, diagnosis and treatment are made at the same time (with a single procedure) without damaging the reproductive organs.
The aim of the treatment is to prevent the regular effect of ovarian hormones on the intrauterine mucosa or to surgically remove the endometriosis foci. The aim of drug therapy is to suppress ovulation, to stop menses for a long time, and to regress or even disappear endometriosis foci.
Treatment is always planned according to the patient’s wishes. In addition, analgesic therapy for pain can be applied. In surgical treatment, the aim is to partially or completely remove the diseased tissues.
In the selection of the treatment to be applied, criteria such as the degree of signs and symptoms, the size and localization of the lesions, the age of the patient, and the desire for a child are taken into consideration. The most important form of surgical treatment is the endoscopic method.
Through laparoscopy, many endometriosis foci that cannot be seen from the outside are recognized and treated at the same time.