Direct and crossover effects of phenylephrine and cyclopentolate on foveal avascular zone and vessel density of macular capillary plexuses: an optical coherence tomography angiography study.

Purpose: To determine the influence of phenylephrine and cyclopentolate on foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and vessel density of macular capillary plexus measurements via optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Materials and Methods: The participants were separated into 2 groups according to the administration of drops. One drop of phenylephrine 2.5% was administered on one eye of each subject in the phenylephrine group (n=30) and one drop of cyclopentolate 1% in the cyclopentolate group (n=30). FAZ parameters and vessel density values ​​of both superficial (SCP) and deep capillary plexuses (DCP) were calculated via OCTA priorly and at 45 min following the drop administration in both eyes. Vessel density, acircularity index of FAZ, FAZ area, perimeter of FAZ and foveal density-300 were evaluated via OCTA. Results: The vessel density values ​​of fovea in SCP and DCP was 18.51±7.14% and 36.05±8.76% and significantly decreased to 16.16±6.26% and 33.29±9.47% respectively after drop instillation in dilated eyes in phenylephrine group (p=0.041 and p=0.032). Likewise, the vessel density values ​​in SCP and DCP were 21.56±7.74% and 39.27±8.76% and significantly decreased to 18.89±7.32% and 35.36±5.75% respectively after drop instillation in dilated eyes in cyclopentolate group (p=0.035 and p= 0.028). However, there was no significant difference between before and after instillation of drops in terms of foveal density-300 value via FAZ assessment tool in both dilated and nondilated contralateral eyes in both groups (p>0.05 for all). Conclusions: Mydriasis with phenylephrine and/ or cyclopentolate did not affect the foveal density-300 values ​​while analyzing the perfusion of macula. Vessel density in foveal region should be evaluated via FAZ evaluation software of the OCTA. Keywords: capillaries, mydriatics, optical coherence tomography

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