Developmental Tasks in Preschool Period

0-6 Months

  • During this period, reflexes dominate.

  • Responds to loud sound.

  • Shoulder and head control begin to appear.

  • 4. Can sit for a short time when supported within months. He can hold his head upright. It can be straightened based on its arms.

  • He cries out his wishes.

  • He likes to be loved.

  • He shows his satisfaction with a smile.

  • He repeats a catch without stopping.

  • When he shakes the rattle quickly, he realizes that it is making a sound.

  • Captures objects with palm.

  • Cooperation of sight and hearing is seen. He looks in the direction the sound is coming from.

  • Tries to recognize objects especially by putting them in mouth

  • He is seen repeating syllables (“da-ba, da-da” etc.).

  • Crawling movement is seen.

7-12 Months

  • There have been many gains in body control.

  • Can sit with support.

  • He watches his surroundings with great curiosity and interest.

  • He wants to touch everything.

  • Distinguish familiar people from strangers.

  • He can laugh with laughter. It shows love.

  • While he gives positive reactions to those he knows, he gives a crying reaction to those he does not know.

  • In particular, it gives appropriate reactions to the happy and unhappy expressions of the mother.

  • He is interested in colorful, moving objects, tries to catch them.

  • Can pass objects from one hand to the other.

  • He likes to throw objects.

  • He tries to throw the ball to the person in the mix.

  • Makes up one-word sentences.

  • Can use a spoon.

  • He manages to hold the glass with both hands and bring it to his mouth.

  • He starts walking.

  • A 1-year-old child no longer suspects strangers as much as before. It easily approaches any adult who wants to play.

  • A child of age, who is extremely sensitive to the sounds he hears around him, tries to imitate them from time to time, while making many sounds that do not yet make sense. Some of the sounds it makes have a meaning that the child and those around him can understand, although not linguistically.

  • Understands more words than he can extract.

 

13-24 Months (2 Years)

  • Makes two-word sentences.

  • He understands more than he can speak.

  • He begins to develop other movement skills related to walking such as running, jumping, walking backwards, climbing stairs, and to gain mastery in skills such as pushing, pulling, standing in balance, and carrying goods.

  • Now that he can move, he also manages to reach and touch the items that he had been curious about before.

  • He wants to touch the things he sees and play with them. He is disappointed when he is not given this opportunity or an activity he wants to do is prevented, and he shows this with his crying and kicking behaviors.

  • He is extremely curious and is interested in everything he sees in the outside world.

  • The child is eager to eat by himself, to walk by himself.

  • He likes to attract attention, he is very active.

  • Their attention span is very short, 2-5 minutes. However, if something is very interesting to them, they may attend the event for a longer period of time.

  • He is not yet successful in playing by himself for a certain time.

  • The toy selection has not reached any determination in playing with the toy.

  • He gains control of the toilet.

  • Although he is interested in other children in the field of movement and vision, he does not see them as friends with whom he can play constantly. He mostly enjoys being with his parents and playing.

  • The need for sleep gradually decreases, but he still needs at least one or two hours of sleep once during the day and about twelve hours at night.

  • The chair can also sit comfortably.

  • It can go up and down stairs when held by the hand. He can jump on one foot. He cannot use both feet in the jump.

  • can run; but loses balance in sudden turns.

  • Can turn book pages three-by-five; He reveals from time to time that he is able to translate one by one.

  • During this period, children often use the word “no” and may even say no when asked if they want something they really like.

  • Negative reactions are more common in the middle of the age of two. This situation, which is almost a natural course of development, can be interpreted as an expression of the child’s helplessness against the outside world.

25-36 Months (3 Years)

  • It is active, cheerful and lively.

  • He has gained mastery in walking, can easily achieve all movements related to walking.

  • Runs comfortably, can use hands and arms.

  • His ability to use language is highly developed.

  • He/she can communicate verbally with his/her environment by succeeding in speaking properly.

  • He knows more words than he can express. Therefore, he can think fast. However, it may have some difficulties in converting it to sound. This can give the impression of a speech defect from time to time.

  • He enjoys being talked to and asking questions.

  • Can respond to adults, asking for their approval.

  • He can eat on his own.

  • It can carry some things without spilling.

  • He is egocentric.

  • He enjoys playing with his peers for short periods of time.

  • He enjoys being with, playing and talking with his parents as well as playing by himself.

  • He can dress and undress by himself.

  • It produces fantasy games and imaginary friends.

  • He enjoys trying on adult clothes and imitating his behavior.

  • He likes to listen to simple and not too long stories and to repeat songs with simple melody.

  • He becomes interested in large picture books and crayons.

  • Enjoys looking at pictures in books with adults.

  • They love to listen to the stories of the pictures. He likes to repeat what he likes.

  • Although his drawing skills are very limited, he also tries to draw on paper with colored pencils.

  • Distinguish between odor and texture differences.

  • He is adept at stacking cubes. It can build a tower with 9-10 cubes. Using cubes horizontally is seen.

  • It is largely egocentric. However, he started to realize some rules that are valid in the family.

  • Slowly, he begins to learn to share, to wait, to be patient for the fulfillment of his wishes.

  • He also manages to make some of the sacrifices required of him in order to be with other children close to him.

  • The child, who is extremely interested in the outside world and his surroundings, can learn from wearing the clothes of adults, imitating their behavior, boxes, wheels, balls, hammers, button picture cards, etc. He takes great pleasure in playing with real objects, dividing them into groups and matching them.

  37-48 Months (4 Years)

  • He is an individual who can act on his own, ask questions, make choices, and give information about himself.

  • Large and small muscle skills have increased. Easily jumps, runs, walks, indicates the need to move at every opportunity.

  • His skill in catching the ball has increased.

  • Towards the end of the age of three, his mobility has reached a level where he can ride a tricycle and throw and catch the ball.

  • What? Why? Why? He often uses his questions. He listens to the explanations made to him with interest.

  • Models adult behavior.

  • He likes to be praised.

  • Plays longer.

  • It confuses reality with fantasy.

  • Tries to use slang words.

  • He has gained a great deal of mastery in using his hands and fingers. Can hold and use pencil, brush and scissors successfully. He likes to paint on large papers with a thick pencil and brush.

  • He draws a picture of a person by indicating a head and two lines that come out of it. The body is not included in this drawing.

  • Begins to enjoy being with other children more than before. Their games are longer than 3 years old.

  • He is very successful in expressing his feelings and thoughts through language. Although he has difficulties in expressing himself from time to time, he can usually express himself well.

  • Asks the adult to rationally explain their wishes and can criticize their own behavior and the behavior of others according to certain standards. In the meantime, he does not hesitate to criticize the adult.

  • They still have problems mixing reality with fantasy.

  • He enjoys telling stories about what he does, which are often fictitious.

  • He likes to listen to fairy tales. His attention span is 10-15 minutes. varies between

  • 49-60 Months (5 Years)

  • It is an age in which the child makes new discoveries about his environment, expands his environment gradually, and is prepared to take some responsibilities with less need for adult support.

  • Socializes quickly (Makes an effort to learn the rules of society).

  • Usually lively and cheerful.

  • Their behavior is usually self-confident and friendly.

  • At this age, development has slowed considerably compared to the first four years.

  • He likes to please adults.

  • He wants to be seen and appreciated for what he does.

  • Body movements in running, jumping and jumping are in perfect balance.

  • Draws the human picture as head, legs and feet. The inclusion of the body in this drawing can occur towards the sixth age.

  • He watches all the adult’s behavior and likes to repeat in his games what they do in real life.

  • He always talks and asks questions.

  • Shows great persistence in the acquisition of any skill.

  • She manages to control her emotions to a great extent.

  • Interested in work inside and outside the home.

  • He has become a master in dressing, eating, combing hair and washing.

  • If given appropriate opportunities, she can put on her shoes, wear simple buckles, and button them with some difficulty.

  • He enjoys group games. He doesn’t want to be left out of the group. He realizes that he has to make some sacrifices in order to be with his friends.

  • He enjoys painting and music.

  • He tries to get along well with both peers and adults.

  • He enjoys playing games such as jumping rope, cycling and running.

  • He enjoys listening and telling stories.

  • If the home environment allows him, he starts to be interested in books.

  • Numbers attract more and more attention. He counts everything he sees with numbers he knows.

  • Understands and applies rules at home and at school better. Although he may show irritability and resentment at times, this type of behavior is more common when a child is tired, sleepless or sick.

61-72 Months (6 Years)

  • Childhood is one of the critical periods in development. It is noteworthy that the child, who usually seems relaxed, harmonious and calm at the age of five, begins to change towards the middle of this age and takes on a more active and incompatible appearance.

  • Replaces milk teeth.

  • Their movements are coordinated.

  • It coordinates your body better.

  • She enjoys running, skiing, dancing to music, singing.

  • He can dress and undress by himself, and he can also make himself a toilet and even clean himself.

  • He is quite curious. The desire to learn is strong.

  • Enjoys adult company.

  • He likes to be in a group of friends.

  • He is happy to take charge.

  • The groups in which he plays games have expanded. He likes to play alone.

  • The rules are set by the children in the game.

  • Considers gender discrimination in group games.

  • He is a realist in thought, he often asks the question whether it is true.

  • The child often asks the question of why in the face of the rules or prohibitions that are communicated to him.

  • He has mastered the use of pencils and brushes.

  • It is easier to understand what they draw in their paintings. The lines are more realistic. Can draw a full picture of a person by specifying the head, torso, arms and legs.

  • It has a highly variable feature. For this reason, there may be differences between their behavior at home and school from time to time.

  • The concepts of past, present and future have begun to take shape in a crude way.

  • It can show emotional outbursts from time to time.

  • He is less dependent on adults now, he seeks the company of his friends more.

  • Although he still remains socially dependent on his family, the importance of teachers and friends continues to increase.

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