1. During the same two-week period, five (or more) of the following symptoms are present and there has been a change in previous level of functioning.

  2. At least one of these symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.

1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, and either self-reported (eg, sad, feeling empty, or hopeless) or observed by others (eg, appearing tearful).

2. A marked decrease in interest or enjoyment in all or nearly all activities is present most of the day, nearly every day (as determined by subjective expression or observation).

3. Losing or gaining a lot of weight when not trying to lose weight (not dieting).

4. Insomnia or oversleeping, almost every day.

5. Psychomotor agitation or a feeling of slowing down or slowing down nearly every day.

6. Fatigue or lack of inner strength (low energy) nearly every day.

7. Feelings of worthlessness or excessively inappropriate guilt nearly every day.

8. Difficulty thinking or concentrating or indecisiveness nearly every day.

9. Recurrent thoughts of death.

B. These symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

What is written above is the method of diagnosing depression according to DSM5 criteria.

Symptoms of Depression

Behavioral Dimension: Withdrawal from previously pleasurable activities, inability to cope with problems, slowing down of movement and activities, decrease.

Cognitive Dimension: Difficulty concentrating and focusing, indecision, weakening in memory.

Emotional Dimension: Feeling of guilt, worthlessness, anxiety, sadness, shame, anger.

Physical Dimension: Changes in appetite, sleep problems, decreased sexual interest and desire.

Motivational Dimension: stagnation, decrease in self-confidence.

The Process That Leads the Depressed Person to Seek Professional Help

Depression itself is not usually the reason that brings depressed individuals to seek counseling. The person applies because of the dysfunction caused by depression in his daily life, business life and social life. The performance of depressed people decreases at work, the person begins to withdraw from social activities, and starts to lose motivation and interest. As a result of these situations, he decides to seek professional help.

Cognitive Triad in Depression

In depression, the person develops negative beliefs about himself, the world and the future. The person begins to believe in thoughts such as ‘It’s my fault, I’m worthless, I’m guilty, everything is bad, the world is an unlivable place, everything will get worse, nothing will get better’. It is possible to talk about a perceived loss in the person. He thinks he has lost something to be happy. He believes that the steps he will take to regain what he has lost will be in vain. He begins to see himself as inadequate. These situations cause the person to have a negative view of the future.

in depression Anticipation Loss

Anticipation is the hope and expectation that positive things will happen. It is the ability of people to think and design their future. When we talk to the depressed patient, he doesn’t talk about his future plans. There are no short or long-term plans. Trapped in negative experiences from the past. They do not have positive expectations for the future. This situation defines depression as a cognitive disorder that is explained by the inability to plan for the future and take action rather than a mood disorder.

According to the Cognitive Behavioral Model:

Our emotions are caused by our cognitions or thoughts.

2- When you feel depressed, your thoughts are dominated by negativity.

3- It contains negative thoughts, distortions and biases that cause emotional turmoil.

In other words, depression occurs as a result of distortions in our cognitive system.

In Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, behavioral assignments are first given to the client. It is said that the amount of motivation and pleasure will increase as the activity increases. These behavioral assignments are supported by cognitive studies. The person’s automatic thoughts, intermediate beliefs, and core beliefs are identified. Unrealistic thoughts are drawn to a realistic dimension by using methods such as evidence collection method and worst-case scenario technique. The thoughts that cause dysfunction in the person’s mood are replaced with more functional thoughts.

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