Depression

Depression Definitions

Depression is a syndrome that manifests itself with slowing down in thought, speech, movement and physiological functions, stagnation and all these, as well as feelings and thoughts of worthlessness, diminution, weakness, reluctance, pessimism, but at the same time, it can also cause a lot of sadness and sometimes a person’s depressed mood. is a state of depression (Türkçapar, 2009).

Depression can be seen in many mental or non-psychic disorders. Depressed individuals often have trouble sleeping. The individual has difficulty falling asleep, even when he falls asleep, his sleep is interrupted, and this split sleep state causes the individual to be disturbed. Sometimes, individuals may experience more sleep than necessary. Since these people do not have an appetite to eat, there is a constant weight loss of the person. Again, the opposite of this situation is when the person consumes too much food, as a result, the person can gain too much weight (Türkçapar, 2009).

Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Major Depression

Cognitive behavior therapy gives importance to the area where the cognitive processes of feelings and behaviors stop in curing depression. How a person evaluates and describes the relevant case, and the emotional and physical feedback that the person gives in response to a situation are important. Cognitive therapy puts there that the individual is regulated by the most common value forms and schemas, and it is also accepted that the deterioration of psychology is related to many determinants. While people’s reactions to certain anxiety creators according to their cognitive history can be added to this situation, there is also the possibility that people have a hereditary predisposition.

Normal emotional reactions also come to the fore in a more intense and persistent manner against developments such as psychopathological emotional images. For example, it is common for the depressed person to be depressed and disinterested. Behavioral consequences of psychopathology vary according to the content of cognitive organization (Corsini Wedding, 1989: 290-291).

According to Beck’s cognitive model, it is noteworthy that depression, which constitutes the cognitive pillar of cognitive behavioral therapy, stems from a stubborn and pessimistic evaluation of one’s experiences. Interpreting these errors allows the pessimistic cognitive triad system to occur. In this system, the person includes the system of negative thinking about the world he lives in and what he will live in the future. If the person remembers these negative and pessimistic thoughts frequently, he/she feels negative affect (Kramer, 2009).

Negative situations experienced by the person in his early childhood, creating a negative theme, and the clear manifestation of these schemas with the negative life experience in the following days are effective in the occurrence of depression. As the person’s way of thinking and cognitive distortion system return to normal, negative feelings begin to show depressive indicators (Kramer, 2009).

In the section that includes the behavioral part of behavioral therapy, he interprets depression by associating it with a kind of learning. According to the cognitive pillar of the cognitive behavioral therapy school, when the individual experiences an experience, this state is viewed as preparing the environment for learning. So much so that if the person matches the wrong result with the experience he has passed, a wrong learning occurs and he reaches a different result (Kramer, 2009).

To examine the subject in more detail, according to the behavioral orientation, if the person is faced with a situation of helplessness that he has learned before, this situation results in the occurrence of major depression (Maier, 1984). This state of helplessness can be observed in animals as well as in humans. If a person cannot reach it with his own effort, this state begins to be seen and felt as if it is a near impossible state, and eventually this situation realizes itself. This is one of the ways the behavioral foot explains major depression (Kramer, 2009). During this time, the individual begins to exhibit depressive symptoms such as loss of appetite and pessimistic thinking, and this state is quite similar to the behaviors observed in learned helplessness with animals (Willner, 1990).

Psychoanalytic Approach to Major Depression

In the Psychoanalytic School, the decline in the individual’s self-esteem and self-confidence in the event of the loss of the object of affection and its continuation; It can be said that there is a Major Depression in case of an increase in the perceptions of guilt, unhappiness and worthlessness (Berry, 2000).

The Psychoanalytic Approach shows that depression is caused by having an Oral or Late Anal Period in childhood (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016).

The depressed individual has faced some mental problems after the destruction he has experienced. At this point, defense mechanisms emerge in order to make living with the mentioned mental problems bearable. (Alper, 2002).

This defense system, which develops when the individual is depressed, instead of the aggressive and hostile impulses being transmitted to the related object, can be explained by depression (Alper, 2002). What needs to be done to the individual in this situation is to examine the events and situations that cause depressive symptoms in the individual and to examine what meanings they have for the individual (Öztürk, Uluşahin, 2016). It is important in the aid process to investigate the conflicts and the root causes of the distressing situation experienced by the individual and to confront them with them (Berry, 2000).

Individuals describe themselves as losers. They define the world they live in for the future as an environment that prevents them from being satisfied, and they think that they have no hope for their future.

The use of psychotherapy in the treatment of depression started with the Psychoanalytic Model. In psychodynamic-based forms of therapy, depression is defined as a relationship with internalized anger, psyche, and mind based on unconscious frictions. For this reason, it focuses on the experiences in the story projected by such conflicts and on raising the level of awareness of the client’s internal conflicts with the comments made, and this situation is long-lasting. Here, it is aimed to provide the patient insight into these conflicts through the free association method and the therapist’s interpretation (Sütçügil and Özmenler 2007).

Studies have proven that psychodynamic psychotherapies can be quite effective in the treatment of depression. Psychodynamic psychotherapists have been slow to respond to pressure to empirically demonstrate activity and effectiveness, due to the effect that therapists with a psychoanalytic orientation have a less regulated and more natural culture. Studies indicate that Psychodynamic Psychotherapy is effective in the treatment of depression and shows improvements in personality and defense mechanisms. It has also been found that it is not superior to other psychotherapies. In higher levels of depression, combined psychotherapy with drug therapy seems essential. Skilled and well-trained nurses can perform effective simple psychodynamic psychotherapy in terms of case counseling and public psychiatry duties (Alper, 2002).

The Existential Approach to Major Depression

According to this approach, the most primary feature of the individual is the effort to find meaning in life and the feeling of being important. Yalom introduces the phenomenon of meaninglessness, namely the loss of meaning in life, as a fact of life. For this reason, Existential Therapy connects major depression with the loss of meaning in one’s life and helps the individual to find meaning in his life. When a person is faced with this reality, he experiences anxiety and conflict.

The question that brought me closer to the end in the fiftieth year of my life is “What will be the benefit from the activity I do now and the work I do tomorrow”? In other words, it asks questions about what purpose a person lives for, what he expects from life, why he should take action. It is important to question whether there is any meaning in life that will not be affected by the inevitable death that awaits the person. Lack of meaning in life has an important place in the onset of neuroses, especially depressions (Yalom, 2001).

Biological Approach to Major Depression

As seen today, it is seen that functional impairments related to neurotransmitters of the brain, especially serotonin and norepinephrine systems, are of great importance in the development of major depression. These functional impairments followed in major depression are either influenced by changes in brain functioning or depression itself is involved in the initiation of these changes. The general view so far is that depression is triggered by disruption of neurotransmitter Systems. In other words, functional pathologies of neurotransmitters are at the root of depression (Işık et all, 2013).

Seratonin Hypofunction is central in many scientific studies on the neurobiological definition of depression. The fact that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors act like antidepressants, decrease in serotonin reabsorption and adhesion of platelets to the serotonin transporter, increase in sensitivity, neuron transmission and functions after treatment with antidepressant drugs in studies conducted in pessimistic people who have never received any treatment, are the findings that confirm this hypothesis (Ok &Zeren). , 2002).

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