Dementia (dementia) is a progressive disease characterized by psychiatric symptoms such as forgetfulness-impaired memory, deterioration in mental and language skills, personality changes, irritability, and behavioral disorders, which develop due to many disorders affecting brain functions. The disease begins slowly and insidiously and causes the person to have difficulty in performing daily life activities. At this stage, the symptoms are usually attributed to old age and are neglected. Sometimes the patient’s relatives are misinterpreted as having a strong memory for remembering past events very well. In Alzheimer’s disease, close memory is affected first. Due to short-term memory impairment, the patient constantly talks about the past. In more advanced stages, personality and behavioral disorders, hallucinations, irritability and agitation cause major problems for the patient and their relatives. Diagnosis and initiation of treatment gain importance in the period when impairments in daily living activities begin.
CAUSES OF DEMENTATION
1- causes of progressive dementia:The causes of this group of dementias are progressive and there is no definitive treatment.
-Alzheimer’s disease: It is the most common cause of dementia.
-Vascular dementia (dementia): As a result of vascular occlusions in the brain
-Fronto-temporal lobe dementia
-Lewy body dementia
-Dementia due to Parkinson’s disease
Dementia due to Huntington’s disease
-Dementia due to head trauma: Repetitive headaches such as boxer, football player
occur in people who have been traumatized.
2-Diseases that cause treatable dementia symptoms
-Infections and immune system diseases: Infection such as meningitis
diseases, immune system diseases such as MS
-Metabolic and endocrine disorders: Thyroid disease, hypoglycemia, sodium,
calcium disorders, vitamin B12 deficiency
-Nitrational disorders: Dehydration (not taking enough fluids), vitamin B1
-Drug side effects
-Subdural hematoma: It develops due to head trauma. Especially
personality changes and forgetfulness as a result of a mild head injury in the elderly
is seen. Most elderly patients do not remember having a head injury. This
Therefore, in patients with sudden onset of memory loss, forgetfulness and personality changes.
-Poisonings: Heavy metal poisoning, insect and pest cleaner
chemicals used in pesticides, excessive use of alcohol
-Anoxia; Diseases that cause hypoxia, sleep apnea, asthma, heart attack,
like carbon monoxide poisoning.
-Normal pressure hydrocephalus (collection of water in the brain): Ataxia (while walking)
It is a disease characterized by imbalance, urinary incontinence and forgetfulness.
It is caused by enlargement of the ventricles. Most of the shunt placed in the brain
relieves the patient’s complaints.